When opium has been given in large doses in order to allay pains and check diarhoea, and, as not unfrequently occurs, true paralysis of the limbs has been produced, there is no cure for this kind of paralysis, just as paralysis can never be cured by strong electric shocks.
Some of the primary effects of opium last but a few seldom admit of a homoeopathic application in human diseases; but when it is so used a small portion of a drop of the decillion-fold potency suffices for a dose.
[HAHNEMANN”S fellow-observers were CUBITZ, GUTMANN. SCHONIKE, STAPF.]
The following old-school authorities are quoted:
Acta Nat. Cur., iv.
AEPLI, sen in Hufel. Journ., xxiv.
ALIBERT, in Wibmer. Wirkung der Arzneien u, Gifte.
ALPIN, med. Aegypi, iv.
ALSTON, Medical Essays.
BARD, SAM., Diss. de Viribas Opii, Edinb., 1765.
BAUER, in Actea Nat. Cur., ii.
BAUTZMANN, in Misc. Nat. Cur., dec, is, ann. 8.
BAYLIS, Prax. Med., Lib. i.
BERGER, Diss. de vi Opii raifacient., Viteb., 1708.
BERGIUS, Mat. Medorrhinum
BOERHAAVE, Praelect iv. – De Morb. Nerv.
BOHN, de officio Medorrhinum
BONET, pulcert, Anatom., lib. i.
BORELLI, PET., Cent. 4.
BUCHNER, Diss. de opio, Halae, 1748.
BUTTNER, CH. G., Unterr. Uber d. Todtlichkeit d. Wunden.
CHARAS, MOSES, Pharm. Reg. Chym.
CHARDIN, Voyage eg perse, AMST., 1771, VOL. IV.
CHARVET CLARK, DE V OPIUM, 1826.
CLAUDER, GABR., in Misc. nat. Cur., dec. ii, ann. 5.
COCQ, in Stalpaart van der wiel’s Observat., Cent. ii.
CROIX, DE LA, Journ, de Medorrhinum, xxxix.
CRUMPE, Natur und Eigensch, des Opiums.
ETTMULLER, Diss. de vi. Opii diaphor., Lips., 1694.
FRIEND, Opera. Tom. I, Emmanol.
GARCIAS AB HORTO, hist, Aromat., i.
GASTER, DE, Med, Dodgm.
GUIAND (no reference).
GEOFFROY, Mat. Medorrhinum
GRIMM, F. C., Acta Nat, Cur., iii.
HALLER, DE., de partib. Corp. irritab. Et sensib. – in Praelect. Boerh. Instit., iv.
HAMBERGER, Diss. de Opio, Jen., 1749.
HARGENS, in hufel. Journal, ix.
HECQUET, reflexions sur l’usage de Opium, a paris. 1726.
HELLWICH, CH. DE., Bresl. Samml, 1702.
HOFFMANN, ER., Diss. de operatione Opii, Hal., 1700, – med. rat. Syst., ii. – D. Correct. Opii, hal, 1702.
HUNTER., J., On the Venereal Disease.
JONES, The Mysteries of Opium revealed.
JOERDENS, in Hufel. Journ., xviii.
JUNCKER and BOHMER, Diss. sistens casum matrona largissimo usu opii tractatoe, Halae, 1744.
KA, Amoen, exot., fasc. iii.
KILIAN, in Med, Annal., 1800, Oct.
KNEBEL, in Hufel. Journ., xxvi.
LASSUS, in mem. de l’ Inst, national des sc. Et des Arts, tom. ii.
LEROUX, Journ. de Medorrhinum
LEVESQUE-BLASOURCE, in Journ. de medec., 1808, Juillet.
LINDESTOLPE, de Venenis.
LORRY, Journ. Encyclop., I, – recueil Period.
MANCHART, Eph. Nat. Cur., Cent. i.
MATTHAEI, C. C., in Hufel. Journ., xi.
MATTHIOLUS, in Tralles, l. c.
MEAD, de Venenis, in Opera, t. ii. Misc. Nat. Cur., dec. ii. ann. 10.
MONRO, Essays Phys. And Liter., vol. iii.
MULLER, in Hufel. Journ., xviii.
MURRAY, Apparat. Medorrhinum, ii.
MUZELL, Wahrnehmungen, ii.
OUTREPONT, D, Deutsche Zeitsch. F. Geburtsheilk., i.
PITCAIRNE, Diss. de Circulatione in Animalibus genetis et non genetis, L. B.- Element. Medorrhinum, lib. ii.
PLATER, Observ., lib. i.
PYL, Aufshtze, Samml. i.
RADEMACHER, in Hufel. Journ., iv.
REINEGGS. in Blumenbach’s med. Bibl., i.
RENOAEUS, Mat. Medorrhinum, Lib. i.
ROLANDSON, MARTEN, in Vetensk. Acad. Handling., 1773, pt. ii.
RUDGERI, Ouwens Noctes Haganoe, Vorr.
RIEDLIN, Lin. Medorrhinum, ann. Iv, Dec.
RUEF, DE, App. Ad. Nova Acta nat. Cur., Dec. ii, ann. 5.
SAAR, JON. JAC., Reise nach dem Orient.
SACHS VON LEWENHEIM, in Misc. nat. Cur., ann. 2.
SAUVAGES, Nosol. Method., i.
SCHELHAMMER, in Misc. nat. Cur., Dec. ii, ann. 5.
SCHWEIKERT, in Hufel. Journ., viii.
STALPAART VAN DER WIEL, Cent. ii.
STENZELIUS, de Venenis, i.
STUTZ, in Hufel. Journ., viii.
SWEITEN, VAN, Comment., i.
THOMPSON, AL., Diss. de Opio.
TRALLES, De Usu et abusu Opii, i.
THUESSINK, EV. JO. THOMMASSEN A, Diss. de opii usu in Syphilitide, L. B., 1785.
VERMANDOIS, no reference.
VICAT, Plantes Veneneuse de la Suisse. – Observationum Delectus.
WALDSCHMID, J. J., Monita medica circa opium, marburg, 1679.
WARD, in Neues Journ. d. ausland. Medorrhinum Literatur, iv.
WEPFER, De Apoplexia.
WHYTT, New edinb. Essays.
WILLIS, Pharm. Rat.
YOUNG, treatise on opium, edinb., 1753.
In the Fragmenta de Vir; there are 274 symptoms, in the 1st edit. 578, in the 2nd edit. 638, and in this 3rd edit. 662.]
Vertigo from stooping (aft. 20 h.).
Vertigo. [C. C. MATTHAEI, in Hufel. Journ., xi. 2. (Observations on patients.) – Young, treatise on oium. – Tralles, De Usu et abusu opii. – (Observations and statements.) – CLARK, Essays and Obs. Phys. And Lit., edit. 3, 1771. (Poisoning of a man by twenty grains (wrongly given as “Clarck”).) – Murray, Apparat. Medorrhinum, ii, p. 282. (General statement.)
Vertigo and stupefaction of the head. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Great vertigo compels him to lie down. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
5. Vertigo, as if all went round in a circle with him. [SCHELHAMMER, (From pills of styrax and opium.) in Misc. nat. Cur., Dec. ii, ann. 2, obs. 12.]
Giddy, anxious, insane. [TRALLES, l. c., p. 283.]
Vertigo and confusion of the head. [YOUNG, l. c.]
Giddy intoxication; he staggered hither and thither. [AL. THOMPSON, Diss de. Opio. P. 121. (Observations and statements). ]
Intoxication. [RADEMACHER, in Hufel. Journ., iv, 3, p. 587. (From tincture Thebaica given in Dysentery.) – BUCHNER, Diss. de Opio, Halae, 1784, § 45. (Not accessible.)
10. A kind of intoxication, that prevented for supporting herself on her legs. [LEROUX, Journ. de Medorrhinum (From nearly a drachm. In a woman of 51.)]
In larger doses than those that cause cheerfulness, opium excites intoxication. [TRALLES, l. c.]
Cloudiness of the head (immediately). [DE LA CROIX, Journ. de Medorrhinum, xxxix. (From two grains taken by a woman in a clyster (p.313). Preceded by a feeling as if something mounted to her head.) ]
Dulness in the head, with a dry hot feeling in the eyes, and inclination of the eyes to shut, without sleepiness, with a sensation as if he had not slept the previous night. [Ctz.]
The head is heavy, and as if intoxicated (for 12 hours). [TRALLES, l. c., p. 101.]
15. Confusion of the head. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Confusion of the head, as if smoke had got into the brain. (From a mixture of Hoffmann’s anodyne and opium; momentarily occuring.) . [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Stupor. [BERGIUS, (From a mixture of Hoffmann’s anodyne and opium; momentarily occuring.) Mat. Medorrhinum, p. 482.]
Stupefaction of the intellect, as if he had a board in front of the head, and vertigo compelling him to lie down; then trembling of the body for some time. (As S. 16.) . [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Violent stupefaction and intoxication (from the smell of a large quantity of opium). [LORRY, Journ. Encyclop., I, part ii, p. 72. (Observations and statement.) ]
20. Dull stupefaction, with dull eyes and excessive powerlessness.. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Stupefaction and insensibility, and yet he answers rationally. [VICAT, Plantes Veneuses de la Suisse, p. 226. (From overdose of laudanum mixed with amber and nitre. (All the symptoms referred to Vicat belong to this case.) (Comp. with 40.)
Sensation in the head as if he had slept off a severe wine debauch and awake. [TRALLES, l. c., p. 101.]
Obtuseness of the intellect, short anxious respiration, in which the chest is raised high; the eyes look dead and are full of water.. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Copious flow of ideas with gaiety.
25. It makes his mind livelier and more disposed to serious, important work. [WEDEL, Opiologia, p. 165. (Not accessible.) ]
More disposed to elevated contemplations all night, without sleep. [Misc. Nat. Cur., Dec. ii, ann. X, obs. 80. (Statement (wrongly given Eph. Nat. Cur.)]
All inclination to sleep disappeared (after taking opium the previous evening), the imaginative faculty and the memory became exalted to a wonderful degree, so that he was compelled, as it were, to pass the night in the most profound meditations; at day dawn he slumbered for some hours, but then could no longer recall all that he had been thinking of at night. (The symptoms of the mind and disposition caused by opium cannot be so easily separated as those caused by other medicines, so that we can place the former at the commencement among the head symptoms, and the latter at the end of all the other symptoms, because in opium both generally occur together. When opium is used for palliatively suppressing pains, spasms, and the opposite mental and moral states (as in Ss. 619, 25, 612, 613, 611, 605, 614 0, or even for dispelling natural night-sleep (in this latter case in some degree homoeopathically), it produces in their stead usually such mental ecstasises and transports often closely resemble the inner lucid waking of the somnambulists (clairvoyance). )[RUDGERI, Ouwens Noctes Haganoe Vorr., p. 14. (From laudonum taken for spasms of legs.) ]
Slow recollection, stupidity, senselessness. [WILLIS, Pharm. Rat., p. 305.]
Keeping silence. [BERGIUS, l. c.]
30. Weakness of mind. [F. C. GRIMM, Acta. Nat. Cur., iii, obs. 19. (Experiments on self with gr. J – iij.) [F. C. GRIMM, Acta. Nat. Cur., iii, obs. 19. (Experiments on self with gr. J. iij.) ]
The mental faculties depart. [BERGUIS, l. c.]
Obtuse senses. [SAUVAGES, Nosol. Method. I, p. 847. (From Diss of laudanum drunk by a boy of 15.) ]
Obtuseness of the mind. [BOHN, De officio med., p. 362. (Symptoms not found.) ]
All the faculties of the mind, all the senses, are blunted. [CHARDIN, Voyage en Perse, Amst., 1771, tom. iv, pp. 203, 204. (Statements as to opium-eaters.) ]
35. Indifference to pain and to pleasure. [REINEGGS, (Account of the effects of opium-eating) in Blumenbach’s Medorrhinum Bibl. I, l]
Stupefaction, indifference. [EV. JO. THOMPASSEN A THEUSSINK, Diss. de Opii usu in Syphilitide, L. B. 1785, 8. (Not accessible).]
Confusion of the head; he has no true conception of anything, and cannot understand the sense of what he reads. [SCHELHAMMER, l. c.]
Obtuseness of the senses (aft. 8, 12 h.).
He does not know his nearest relatives, nor the most familiar objects.
40. Obtuseness of senses, insensible, almost unconsciousness of his existence, and yet his answers are tolerably appropriate. [SCHELHAMMER, l. c.](comp. with 21).
Is not in his right consciousness. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
Stupefaction of the senses and loss of reason. [FR. HOFFMANN, Diss. de operatione Opii, Hal., 1700, p. 5. (General statement.)
35. Indifference to pain and to pleasure. [REINE, in Blumen. [TRALLES, l. c.]
She knew not what was going on around her and gave no sign of feeling; the limbs were flexible and all muscles were relaxed. [LASSUS, in Mem. de l’Inst National des sc. Et arts tom. ii. (From twenty-six grains taken by a woman of 60.) ]
45. Obscuration and weakness of the understanding; self-deception, as if his eyes were four times larger and his body (Observer says nothing about his body.) of gigantic size. [SCHELHAMMER, l. c.]
He feels as if he flew or floated in the air, and as if all turned round to him. [SCHELHAMMER, l. c.]
He is no destitute of sight and hearing, but of the senses of taste, smell, and touch in regard to external objects; and yet he feels the coldness of his own body (The last clause in the original is – “He felt his cheeks cold when he touched them.”) (aft. 1.1/2 h.). [SCHELHAMMER, l. c.]
Stupidity. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
Stupidity, indifference to external objects. [CRUMPE, Natur und Eigensch. des Opium (General statement(p. 38.) ]
50. Stupidity and imbecility. [HALLER, in Proelect. In Boerh. Instit., iv, p. 519. (General statement.) ]
Opium eaters are drowsy and almost stupid. [ALPIN, (General statements as to Egypten opium – eaters.) Medorrhinum Aegypt. Iv, cap. i.]
Opium eaters are always lazy and intoxicated. [ALPIN, l. c.]
Want of memory. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
Loss of memory. [BERGIUS, l. c.]
55. Often weakness of memory (from the frequent use of opium). [WILLIS, (Observations and statements.) l. c.]
Loss of memory for several weeks. [WILLIS, l. c.]
Long continued loss of memory. [COCQ, (Symptoms not found.) in STALPAART VAN DER WIEL, Observ., cent. ii, obs. 41.]
Lost memory. [BONET, Sepilcret. Anatom., lib. I, sect. L, p. 214. (General statement.)(Note to 48, 49. 50, 51, 52, 53, 45, 55, 56, 57, 58. – If all these states are long continued they become permanent after a prolonged repetition of indulgence in opium; they then amount to the chronic disease, to a kind of paralysis of the mental organs, which may well be incurable (53 to 58 secondary action). ]
Fluctating conceptions. [SCHELHAMMER, l. c.]
60. Insensibility to modesty and the finer feelings. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
The power of the will was lost at the merest trifle. [DE RUEF, (General statement.) App. Ad Nova Acta Nat. Cur., v., p. 63.]
Opium eaters have a reputation for fickleness; they often promise what they hesitate to perform (every one guards himself from them, no one will have anything to do with them). [ALPIN, l. c., cap. 2.]
Rush of blood to the brain. [HALLER, l. c., iv, p. 509.]
(The cerebral vessels were distented with blood.) [MEAD, (General statement. This is merely an hypothesis thrown out by the author.) De Venenis, in Opera, t. ii, p. 190, edit. Gotting.]
65. Pulsation of the arteries of the head. [CHARVET, (Experiments with various doses (act. de l’ Opium, Paris, 1826). L. c.]
He hears the arteries bringing the blood to the brain. [CHSRVET, l. c.]
Very painful headache, involving the occiput. [D’ OUTERPONT. (From a large dose taken by a woman eight months gone in pregnancy (Deutsche Zeitschrift f. Geburtskunde, i, I, 99). ]
One sided headache in the forehead as if it pressed out, diminished by external pressure.
Headache like outward pressure in the forehead.
70. Tearing and pecking in the forehead, sour vomiting, she must lie down and then she perspired.
Single twitches in the temporal muscles.
A kind of pressure in the forehead that seemed to extend to the eyes and nose. [CHARVET, l. c.]
A sensation of tension in the head. [CHARVET, l. c.]
Headache. [MATTHAEI, l. c., viii, 4.]
75. Violent headache. [MUZELL, (From a mixture of opium and spiritus cornu cervi.) Wahrnehmungen, ii, p. 131.]
Aching pain in the head. [MATTEHAEI, l. c., viii, 4; and xi, 2.]
Pain as if all were lacerated in the head and sensation as if all turned round in the body, with cross discomfort. [Ctz.]
Heaviness of the head. [MURRAY, l. c. – BERGIUS, l. c., p. 482. – Gn.]
For several days very heavy head, the occiput like lead, so that the head always fell back and he could not hold it up. [TRALLES, l. c., p. 87.]
80. He cannot hold the head up; it sways to and fro. [TRALLES, l. c., I, p. 283.]
Sunken, pale face. [PYL, Aufsatze, samml. I, p. 95. (From a large dose of the extract in a man of 50-60) ]
Pale face. [Sche.]
Frequent alternation of redness and paleness of the face.
Paleness of the face and nausea, with sensation of drowsiness and diminution of all secretion and excretions, often even of the perspiration. [A. THEUSSINK, l. c.]
85. Pale face and forehead, glassy eyes. (Observer adds : fixed” before “glassy” )[SAUVAGES, l. c.]
Earthy complexion. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
Earthy pale complexion, dull eyes full of water; he slumbers with half open eyes, observes nothing, gives irrelevant answers, passes his faeces involuntarily, sinks down in a heap, and has short anxious respiration. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Bluish and earthy complexion. [GRIMM, l. c.]
Appearance of the face as if he had not slept enough, or had been dissipating during the night, with sunken, blinking eyes. [Ctz.]
90. All the facial muscles appear to be relaxed, whereby the countenance has a stupid expression; the lower lip has a tendency to hang down loosely, the nostrils are wide open, and the upper eyelid can with difficulty be raised. [Sche.]
Red spots on the pale cheeks. [MATHAEI, l. c.]
Bloated face. (“Somewhat swollen” would better represent the original.) [THOMPSON, l. c., p. 120. – Young, l. c.]
Bloated face, hot, dry skin, white tongue. Hoarseness, very oppressed breathing, haemoptysis. (From opium taken for an incipent cold when in a plethoric state (S. 144, 305, 316, 332, 578, all belong to this observation). [YOUNG, l. c.]
Dark red face. (Not found.) [VICAT, l. c.]
95. Quite red face. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
Red, bloated, swollen face. [MURRAY, l. c. – MULLER, in Hufel. Journ., xviii, iv. (From a mixture of tinct. Thebaieca and Hoffmann’s anodyne given for a nervous affection(p. 55).]
Cherry-brown face. [SCHWEIKERT, in Hufel. Journ., viii, 3. (Not found.) ]
Distented blood-vessels in the face. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
Red, bloated face and distented blood-vessels on the head. [HOFFMANN, l. c.]
100. Red face and red eyes. [BERGER, l. c.]
Red face and red inflamed eyes. [J. HUNTER, Ueber de vener. Krankh., p. 640. (Observations on patients.) ]
Uncommon redness of face with swollen lips. [HAMBERGER, Diss. de Opio, jen., 1749, § 16.(A general statement cited from Geoffroy.) ]
Face not merely red, but as if inflamed. [HECOUET, (Not accessible.) Reflexious sur l’usage de l’Opium, Paris, 1726, p. 184.]
Face quite red, with wild, projecting, red eyes. [STENTZEL, De Venenis, I, § 46. (Not accessible). ]
105. Distorted features, silence, open eyes. [AEPLI, sen., in Hufel. Journ., xxv, 3, (From mixture of opium and rhuburb given to a baby for colic.) ]
Spasms of the facial muscles. [KNEBEL, in Hufel. Journ., xxvi, 2. (Observation on a child with whooping-cough (p. 148.))]
Spasmodic movements of the facial muscles (aft. 7 d.). [LEVESQUE-BLASOURCE, in Journ. de Medec., 1808, July. From large doses in a man (vol. xvi, part I, pp. 21-24). ]
Convulsive trembling of the facial muscles, lips, tongue.[AEPLI, l. c.]
Bright, sparkling eyes. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
110. Staring eyes of excessive brightness. [MULLER, l. c.]
Glassy, projecting, immovable eyes that see nothing, like those of a dying person. [VICAT, Observationum Delectus, p. 242.]
Immobility of the pupils to light. [MURRAY, l. c.]
Dilated pupils (the first h.).
Pupils easily dilated.
115. Contracted pupils dilated, their contractility gone. [KILLIAN, in Medorrhinum Annal., 1800, Oct. (Not accessible.)]
Open eyes with pupils turned upwards. [PYL, l. c.]
Sensation in the eyes as if they were too large for the orbits. [CHARVET, l. c.]
He stares at those about him, with watery eyes, but he knows not what is going on, and cannot recognise people. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
120. Sparks before the eyes. (The original is – “he thought flashes of fire came from his eyes.”) [CLARCK, l. c.]
Dimness of vision, it is as if he saw through a veil. [MULLER, l. c.]
Blackness before his eyes and he is gidd. [MATTHAEI, l. c.]
He is perfectly sensible, but complains that his eyes become dark and he is blind (Just before death.) (aft. 4 h.). [WILLIS, l. c.]
Swelling of the lower eyelids. [GRIMM, l. c.]
125. The eyelids hang down as if paralysed. [D’OUTREPONT, l. c.]
Trembling eyelids, which only half cover the globes. [GUIAND. (Not accessible.) ]
Dull roaring in the ears, after eating (aft. 4 h.). [CHARVET, l. c.]
Humming in the ears (very soon). [CHARVET, l. c.]
Ringing in the ears. [YOUNG, l. c. – MURRAY, l. c.]
130. The lower lip is painful when he touches it with the upper teeth or with the fingers. [Sche.]
Distortion of the mouth. (With delirium.) [LORRY, l. c.]
Trismus. [DE LA CROIX,-PYL, l. c.]
Violent pains of the lower jaw (These are described as “rapid and momentary.”) (aft. 7 d.). [LEVESQUE – BALSOURCE, l. c.]
Her mouth could only be opened by force, and she could with difficulty swallow some spoonfuls of fluid. [DE LA CROIX, l. c.]
135. Pain of the upper jaw (aft. 8 h.).
Looseness of the teeth.
Fine eroding pain in the nerves of the tooth (aft. 8 h.).
The lower jaw hangs down. [KILIAN, l. c.]
140. Paralysis of the tongue. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
The voice is weak when he speaks; he can only speak loud with an effort. [Ctz.]
He cannot speak with open mouth. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
He stammers. [REINEGGS, l. c.]
White tongue. [YOUNG, GRIMM, l. c.]
145. Black tongue. [LEVES UE- BLASOURCE, l. c.]
Flow of saliva. [HARGENS, in Hufel. Journ., ix, 2. (Observation on a patient, phthisical old woman, who had this symptom whenever she took opium to check a colliquative diarrhoea. Not found under Reineggs.) – REINEGGS, l. c.]
Profuse flow of saliva. [ALSTON, Edinb. Vers., v, l. (Just before death.)]
Flow of saliva as from mercury. [A THUESSINK, l. c.]
Saliva flowed constantly from the mouth. [KLIAN, l. c.]
150. Suppresses the secretion of the salivary glands, the nasal mucus, and that of the glands of the larynx. [MURRAY, l. c.]
Inspissates the salvia, the nasal mucus, the mucus of the windpipe, and makes the tongue dry. [YOUNG, l. c.]
Dryness of the tongue, palate and fauces, without desire to drink. [Ctz.]
Feeling of dryness of the anterior part of the tongue, without thirst, in the morning.
With dryness of the mouth, without desire for drink, chill over the abdomen.
155. Dryness of the whole mouth, with little thirst. [Sche.]
Dryness at the back of the throat. [BERGIUS, l. c.]
Dryness in the throat and on the tongue. [ETMULLER. Diss. de vi Opii diaphor., Lips., 1694, cap. I, § 5. (General statement.) – MURRAY, l. c.]
Dryness of the mouth, so that he can hardly utter a word. [SCHELHAMMER, l. c.]
Great thirst, especially for small beer. [MATHAEI, l. c.]
160. Urgent thirst. [ETTMULLER,-MURRAY, l. c.]
Produces small ulcers in the mouth and on the tongue. [MATTHUILUS, in Tralles, i. c., § iv, p. 190. (From lasting opium. [Rather, from retaining it some time in the mouth. The same holds good of S. 162.]) ]