The Nitrogen

The dose of the 2-3 potency in such an cute condition as angina pectoris is thoroughly homoeopathic.

The introduction of glonoin into medicine is an outstanding contribution of the homeopath, C.Hering.


Undoubtedly, according to the simile rule, glonoin is suitable for hyperemic headaches. Such headaches are aggravated by movement, bending and shaking the head, from warmth and in particular from the heat of the sun and from wine; results of sunstroke are considered as etiologic indications. Pressure in the eyes, vertigo, ear noises and pulsation in the ears, spots before the eyes, sweating on the head, often accompany the congestive headache. Nausea and seeming smallness of letters can suggest the remedy in attacks of migraine with surging, pulsating pain, which compels absolute rest.

Rushing in the head in the menopause is likewise a suitable field for the use of glonoin.

In the provings the congestion repeatedly led to nose bleed.

After glonoin, increased diuresis is noted in many cases; increased light urine. This symptom occurs not rarely after an attack of angina pectoris as well as migraine and is ascribed to a release of the spasm in the vascular system.

The peculiar etiologic indication, to glonoin, “results of cutting the hair”, refers predominantly to tension in the neck and torticollis which one may perhaps bring into association in sudden variations in the vascular tonus of the neck. The influence of vessel width, redness of the skin, in glonoin extends especially to the neck. Outside of the previously mentioned pain in the arms, a burning, between the shoulder blades is observed and this is likewise a reflex symptom of coronary vessel disturbances. Moreover, in the sacral region and in the region of the sciatic, weakness, feeling, of numbness and pains are noted.

The palliatiative influence in contracted kidney, uremia and eclampsia should be incidentally mentioned.

The psychic actions; restlessness, irritability, anxiety with sudden variations in vascular tonus and the fatigue, loss, of desire for work in the completely dulled head, are not difficult to understand.

Still worthy of note in the last drug proving is the repeated appearance of skin manifestations and in one prover it caused an old frost bite which had disappeared four years before to return. (Here also serves a report from older reports of provings: old scars again break down). The skin manifestations have indeed up to the present no significance as indications for glonoin, but we recall that glonoin, is a nitrate and can hold it as possible that here a nitrate effect comes too weakly to expression. Lewin reports a purpuri form eruption as a rare manifestation in nitroglycerin poisoning: “workers who are concerned with quantities and screening of dynamite have badly healing ulcers on the nails and on the fingers or the plantar surfaces or between the fingers of both hands; there is an eruption which approximates a psoriasis, besides great dryness and formation of rhagades. Healing occurs on discontinuing the work. Recurrences occur”.


Widening of the vessels from the head to the chest, congestive headaches and migraine with vertigo, ear noises, ocular manifestations Stenocardia (angina pectoris) Climacteric rush of blood to head Results of sunstroke Torticollis after hair cutting Aggravation of the headaches and migraine from movement warmth, sun, wine; afterwards increased light urine.

DOSE : In attacks the third decimal; for persistent action the fifteenth decimal has proven itself to me.


The poor tendency to healing from the corrosion of nitric acid, HNO3, has long been known.

Lewin mentions some skin effects from the external use of dilute nitric acid, “after repeated rubbing with dilute nitric acid, the skin show a diffuse redness on which at first are found isolated elevations similar to goose skin. On further rubbing in, these pass over into pustules and after a short existence form small superficial round ulcers. In the brownish center of each stands a hair. Around this brown zone is found a white pseudomembranous appearance. On this occurs a red inflammatory areola. The affection soon disappears with exfoliation” Because this is observed only after external use, one can draw no conclusions apart from the poor tendency to healing and the tendency to ulcerating processes. Such tendencies are not alone peculiar to nitric acid but also to other mineral acids as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and in a prominent degree to arsenious acid. The relationship in the periodic system permits a comparison of nitric acid mentioned, the tendency to ulcers with offensive secretions and a general tendency to ulcers with offensive secretions and a general tendency to bleeding is characteristic.

Nitric acid appears to share still a second organ direction with the other mineral acids, particularly on the mucous membranes of the digestive tract and indeed primarily on the oral mucousa: soreness, swelling, easily bleeds, formation of aphtha and ulcers with offensive odor to the mouth loosening of the teeth, and in nitric acid particularly, a flow of saliva. By the longer use of acid mostly dyspeptic symptoms and at times diarrhea are described. In cases of poisoning the dysenteric symptoms of nitric acid are reported.

In prehomoeopathic times, nitric acid like the other mineral acids was used as a diuretic agent and in drinks for malignant nervous fevers. In Russia it was valued as a folk remedy for syphilis. In secondary syphilis with torpid ulcers it has also been repeatedly recommended when mercury had been given for a long time without result. Still others reported that nitric acid was only of temporary value and would actually heal only when considerable mercury had been previously employed.


For the exact characterization of nitric acid we are today almost exclusively dependent upon the reports of Hahnemann. In recent years I have made a number of provings with nitric acid which will be published separately. They particularly confirm the skin symptoms.

The extensive use in homoeopathy has contributed much to the explanation of the picture. So the sharp splinterlike pains in wounds, fissures and ulcers, moreover, the localization to points of transition from skin to mucous membranes and then the offensive odor of secretions and excretions (including those of ulcers) are guiding.

The chief involvements are those of the skin and mucous membranes. The oral inflammation with salivation, loosening of the teeth, ulcers which are sensitive on contact and white spots, rhagades, soreness and ulcers at junction of skin and mucous membrane have drawn the attention to mercurialism and to syphilis. These associations have proven themselves. The dysentery-like symptoms of nitric acid have added further similarity for the mercurialism.

Syphilitic affections of the skin, the mucous membranes and the sense organs in which mercury has failed or has already been in excessive amounts, not rarely speak for nitric acid. In a severe case of congenital syphilis with ulceration of the soft palate it seemed to be very impressive to me.

Likewise, nitric acid is suitable for gonorrhea with splinter- like pain in the urethra and tendency to inflammation and condyloma at the orifice of the urethra. Syphilitic as well as gonorrheal condyloma and rapidly forming warts are the indications which occasion Hahnemann to consider nitric acid as the second chief remedy (after thuja) in the so-called sycosis.

The third sign of offensive secretions and excretions are again generalized. The urine is offensive, thereby scanty and dark, it smells (as with benzoic acid) like horse’s urine. Burning and sticking in the urinary passages, frequent urge to urinate, and inflammatory swelling and secretion of the urethra lead to its use in urethritis, cystitis and pyelitis with infected urine, not merely of gonorrheal origin.

“Cold urine on voiding” is a symptom from Hahnemann’s proving.

The perspiration is likewise offensive, particularly the foot sweat which causes soreness and splinter-like pains between the toes. Furthermore in definite stages the night sweats of the tuberculous with tendency to bleeding have a remedy in nitric acid which should not be forgotten besides the closely related phosphorus and arsenic.

The nasal secretion in chronic catarrh( or in nasal diphtheria) is offensive, excoriating, with splinter-like stitches in the nose, the nasal orifices becoming sore and bleeding easily. The secretion is yellow, watery or discharged as green fragments each morning so that ozena and septal caries come into consideration as indications.

Likewise offensive leucorrhoea, brown, flesh-colored, watery or tenacious, causing soreness of the vagina and vesicles and ulcers on the mucous membrane, represent the general character of the remedy. Here also exists a tendency to bleeding: metrorrhagia after curettage, the menses are too early and too profuse, associated with excoriating discharge which looks like turbid water, particularly during the climacterium.

Soreness, burning and sticking painful ulcers, with offensive discharges are the corresponding indications in the male genitals for acid nitr.

Fissures of the anus pain as from splinters. The stool hurts the anus as though it were torn. The pain lasts for hours. Easily bleeding hemorrhoids with such fissures and inflammatory pains often react well to nitric acid. An acrid moisture is discharged from the anus.

The bloody, slimy acrid diarrhea with tenesmus is an indication not only in dysentery but also in other persistent intestinal inflammations.

Characteristic is the desire for fats and for indigestible things as chalk, earth, etc. A pain in the cardiac region on swallowing has been cited as an indication in gastric ulcer. It should prove itself.

A sticking or splinter-like pains as from an ulcer is guiding in the upper respiratory passages. The cough is dry, worse at night (before midnight); during the day it seems loose but there is no expectoration. In phthisis with tendency to bleeding or offensive purulent sputum, with a sensation of great weakness in the chest, great dyspnea and stitches through the chest, nitric acid must be considered.

Certain alteration in the pulse, cardiac palpitation and congestive manifestations may be deduced from the provings, which indicate that a nitrite-like action still persists in acidum nitricum. However, up to the present they scarcely have therapeutic significance.

In the provings conducted by me a papular eruption at the frontal hairline was the favored site; moreover, rhagades on the lips and a special dryness of the lips and mouth in single case was confirmed. As a separate symptom of nitric acid should be mentioned the improvement by riding in a carriage, which refers particularly to the difficulty in heating.

A type for nitric acid has been developed from experience. Hahnemann said; “One finds, moreover, that this drug acts more in patients of the firm fibre (brunettes) but is less effective for those of relaxed fibre (blondes)”.

As especially suitable for nitric acid, are considered, brunettes with a yellowish discoloration of the skin, haggard, and aged. The temperament is revengeful, depressed, particularly sensitive to noises, as street alarms. In addition there is great bodily weakness, tendency to chronic diseases and chilling. The scalp is sensitive (for example, against the pressure of the hat). Headaches are practically never missing from provers and they are of the congestive type. Most characteristic seems to be the feeling as though a band encircled the head.


Chief Trends of Action:

Skin and mucous membranes, especially the border between them Fissures, ulcers, eruptions Syphilitic and gonorrhoeic affections; condyloma Mercurialism, stomatitis with flow of saliva Dysentery like enteritis Tendency to bleeding.

Leading Symptoms: Splinter-like pains Localization to injunction of the skin and mucous membrane Offensive odor of secretions and excretions Band sensation around head.

Type: Brunette; haggard; irritable, angry, depressed.

DOSE : My own experiences involve chiefly the fifth and sixth potencies. Still, the higher as well as the lower potencies are recommended.


Potassium nitrate, KNO3, is used relatively little although it is well proven. Provings are found in: (1) Jorg: Materialien, Bd. 1 1825.

(2) Hahnemann: “Chronic Diseases”, 2 Ed, 1838.

(3) Arch.f.hom. Heilk., Bd. 11, p.195, 1831; and Bd. 17, p.123, 1838.

In the drug picture it becomes distinct that the potassium fraction increases the tendency to chest affections in comparison to the nitrite fraction (as well as the weaker nitrate). Asthma is the chief indication and indeed the dyspnea seems to arise not merely in the respiratory passages but also from the heart. Palpitation and stitches in the heart and tendency to cardiac weakness also appear in this potassium preparation.

The dyspnea is so great that the patient cannot hold his breath long enough to quench his thirst; oppression, constrictive sensation in the chest. The dry morning cough, worse about 3 in the morning also permits recognition of the potassium fraction; bloody expectoration shows the nitrite or nitrate action.

Independent of nitrate appears the tendency to edema in potassium nitrate. Indeed, it is still used in official medicine even if other potassium salts as potassium acetate are preferred here. It might be considered as a pure salt action, but from homoeopathic materia medica the special suitability of potassium for edema and hydrops is well kinwn.

A certain tendency to bleeding is also to be placed to the account of the nitrate fraction, so dysentery-like bloody diarrhea. For this the singular aggravation from eating calves flesh is reported. The menses, too early and too profuse, are characterized by the dark blood, and before and after the period, severe sacral pains are present. The last recalls kali carb.

The sticking pain in the joints and between the shoulder-blades may be referred to the potassium influence. Peculiar inflammatory manifestations on the alae nasi, redness, swelling, itching with sensitivity, can be due to both components.

Kalium nitricum is suitable for the hydrogenoid constitution.


Chief Trends of Action:

Asthma with most marked dyspnea, probably also cardiac, with nausea, sticking and burning in the chest; at times bloody sputum Dry morning cough, worse about 3 in the morning Dysentery-like bloody diarrhea (worse from veal).

Constitution: Hydrogenoid.


Sodium nitrate, Chili saltpeter, was considered by ancient physicians as an anti-inflammatory agent of milder action than potassium nitrate. From this point of view and with traces of iatrochemistry, Rademacher came to the use of natr. nitricum in all possible febrile diseases, especially dysentery, scarlet fever and joint rheumatism. For Rademacher and his school natr. nitr. was one of the three universalia, that is agents, for such diseases in which the disturbance of general well being was perceived as basic. In the school of Rademacher the massive dose is always to be considered. Likewise the provings by Loffler, arising from this school in which only large nonpotentized doses were employed, cannot expect to give the gradual development of finer symptoms. Besides the feeling of general lassitude, loss or decrease of energy, tendency to sleep soreness in the muscles and joints, there was an alteration in the pulse; the pulse was weaker, softer and distinctly slower; the face became pale and haggard; wounds, due to bleeding healed more slowly than usual. The rapidity of coagulation was distinctly increased, the venous blood appeared like expressed cherry juice, the water content greater, the coloring of the red blood cells increased. So here too apart from the disturbance of general well-being trends to the circulation, the blood and water economy can be found.

That the thirst was increased from such large amounts of salt is not striking. The intestinal symptoms were very slight, perhaps because the nitrate solution was suspended in gummi arabicum. In two older provers who likewise took massive doses were many complaints of flatulence and acid eructations (besides sluggish stool in the one). Furthermore, in both a sensation of coldness in the lower leg, and in one a chill over the body, in the other alternating sensations of heat are reported.

More restrained in the dose is the provings of Fackelmann under Hugo Schulz. He employed a 1 per cent solution. This proving confirmed the slowing of the pulse; moreover, the pulse was intermittent. Also confirmed was the slow tendency to healing of the skin and the ease with which it was injured. (Whether the acne observed is more than an incidental event remains to be determined). An important observation is the tendency to bleeding from the nose and mouth which appeared in the 1st week of the investigations which were conducted for several weeks.

Marked thirst and increased diuresis does not seem to be a pure salt action in natr. nitric. since they were also observed with D 3.

In the proving carried out at the Stuttgart Hospital, the various potencies were considered, the 30, 6, 3, and 2. Here the sensitivity of the provers is manifested.

In two provers frequent nosebleed appeared as an unusual manifestation for them (in the one with the thirtieth as well as the second potency). Constitutional nosebleed at puberty and in the anemic is a chief indication for natr. nitr. There is no doubt that here the nitrate fraction is effective.

Many times, compression, pressure and other sensations were observed in the cardiac region; in one prover who easily tended to cardiac complaints, the third potency caused such typical aggravation of compression, of pressure and of cramp, that the study was discontinued on the ninth day. (Thereby any occasion for releasing the mild anginoid complaints was excluded.) The nitrate fraction acts here, as in glonoin, as well as in its reduction step, the nitrite. It seems thoroughly justified in suitable cases of angina pectoris to use the nitrate bound to an organic radical in the expectation of a better duration of effect. The slow, intermittent pulse which becomes weak and soft, as noted from large doses, also indicates that the heart muscle and the conduction system are included in the action of natr. nitr.

For the exacerbation of old dental diseases or dental neuralgias, which have been observed in a series of provers, J. Haupt has found a corresponding old report, there was found a periodic facial neuralgia with a cinnabar-red streak on the gum; the gum was swollen, loosened, and easily bled on touch. It is accordingly not improbable that here a nitrate action on the mucous membrane, comparable to that of nitric acid, is present.

Further proving symptoms ascribed to the nitrate fraction are the dull headache, which, according to one observation, was aggravated by the heat from an oven and improved in the open air further, the rushes of heat to the head, and night sweats.

The Stuttgart provers also had a series of digestive disturbances in complaints of distention, acid eructations with a tendency to diarrhea or soft stool, but the evacuation of the stool itself was difficult or a sensation of unreadiness was present. This was reported in the 30, 6, and 3 potencies while the 2 potency showed constipation (corresponding to the results of Fackelmann’s proving with the same dilution) in the same prover who had liquid stools, with the third dilution. How many of these symptoms, which at present have gained no therapeutic significance, can be assigned to the sodium fraction and how many to the nitrate, remains open.

Also the general disturbances, lack of energy, aversion to work, disturbance of sleep, as they were also observed in most of the Stuttgart provers with natr. nitr., moreover the numerous fleeting sticking pains in the joints and muscles, with giving way and uncertainty in walking, read the same as with natr. carb. Also frequently observed were chilliness and sensations of cold, particularly on the feet and lower legs, which were also noted in the two first provers of 1833. Thereby the natrium fraction seems to become manifested in the general symptoms.

These symptoms of chilliness and relaxation, besides the hydremia, which Loffler’s investigations with large doses furnished, offer the necessary point of departure for the incorporation of natr. nitr. under the hydrogenoid agents. Since the same holds for natr. sulph, one might ascribe this constitutional tendency to the sodium cation.

In general, the hydrogenoid character of natr. nitr. seems to be pressed too much into the foreground. Its affinity for the vascular system, to bleeding, inflammations and fevers, angiospasm, congestions, has been demonstrated as therapeutically valuable. So Stauffer has found it useful in a persistent hemoglobinuria which occurred regularly after each chilling of the feet. For frequent nosebleed at puberty, I can also affirm it as useful. At the beginning of febrile infectious diseases natr. nitr. has been extolled.

With these affinities for the blood vessels, natr. nitr. arranges itself well with the other nitrites and nitrates.


Constitution: Hydrogenoid (chilly, relaxed) but still tendency to fever, inflammation and bleeding.

Chief Trends:

Vascular system in febrile diseases (Epidemic Universal of Rademacher); bleeding (nose, hemoglobinuria); circulatory disturbances (congestions, angina pectoris, disturbances of the pulse).

DOSE : The D 3 is usually employed.


Of the two modifications of elementary phosphorus, P, only the yellow (better colorless) has pharmacological significance: red phosphorus is stable by virtue of its molecular structure and shows no or very few reactions and is considered nonpoisonous. On the other hand, yellow phosphorus is extraordinarily reactive an in air it gradually changes from white to yellow phosphorus and in light takes on a layer of red phosphorus.

As an element of the fifth group of the periodic system, phosphorus is trivalent negative but, in contrast to its trivalent hydrogen compounds, the pentavalent positive properties predominate and thereby its tendency to oxygen compounds. The avidity for oxygen gives elementary phosphorus the property of luminescence in air (oxidation to P(OH)3, phosphoric acid). Thereby it is remarkable that the luminescence of phosphorus requires slight amounts of O2 and on the contrary the self-luminescence ceases when phosphorus is brought into an atmosphere of pure oxygen. The light energy in luminescence of phosphorus arises from the chemical energy which becomes free in the oxidation.

Above a certain oxygen pressure the speed of this oxidation does not progress with increasing O2 concentration, but in apparent contradiction to the law of mass action there is a decrease. This behavior recalls a working optimum as it occurs commonly in complicated living processes.

Otto Leeser
Otto Leeser 1888 – 1964 MD, PHd was a German Jewish homeopath who had to leave Germany due to Nazi persecution during World War II, and he escaped to England via Holland.
Leeser, a Consultant Physician at the Stuttgart Homeopathic Hospital and a member of the German Central Society of Homeopathic Physicians, fled Germany in 1933 after being expelled by the German Medical Association. In England Otto Leeser joined the staff of the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital. He returned to Germany in the 1950s to run the Robert Bosch Homeopathic Hospital in Stuttgart, but died shortly after.
Otto Leeser wrote Textbook of Homeopathic Materia Medica, Leesers Lehrbuch der Homöopathie, Actionsand Medicinal use of Snake Venoms, Solanaceae, The Contribution of Homeopathy to the Development of Medicine, Homeopathy and chemotherapy, and many articles submitted to The British Homeopathic Journal,