Heavy Metals

The arrangement of atoms in space is also decisive for the magnetic as well as the catalytic properties. Through the various arrangement of atoms the surface powers depending upon the free valences will be altered and only in the active form is a partial reaction with oxygen possible. The formation of such active surf- aces of a simple iron compound is compared by Baudisch and Welo with enzymatic or serologic processes. The activation of mineral compounds through sunlight is the simplest example of the format- ion of an inorganic vitamin. If now one adds to this effect of light on the arrangement of molecules and atoms still the physical photo-effect which also involves a reformation of the electron structure, then an entire world of structural alteration with whose appearance entirely new properties are bound is opened in chemistry even of the influence of radiant energy.

Bickel and his pupils have found that active iron as iron oxide preparations, so-called siderac, like the fresh Stahl spring, also has biologic actions on the red blood cells, growth and metabolism which are absent in inactive iron oxide and the older Stahl spring water. But the promotion of blood building can only be demonstrated in the previously disturbed equilibrium of anemic children. The lability in iron metabolism forms a pre-condition for such proof and this condition, the iron sensitivity of the side of the organism, has often been referred to by us. A transient increase in the hemoglobin formation has however been found by Adberhalden in the growing normal animal. However even during growth a definite although naturally slight lability may be presumed. The favorable action already demonstrated by Abderhalden on the growth of young animals by the introduction of inorganic iron salts can also be ascribed to active iron in a higher degree than to the inactive. Moreover an influence on the nitrogen balance of the growing animal 594 will also be found only from the active forms of iron.


The physiologic role of iron in hemoglobin is not limited to the acceptance, transport and delivery of oxygen. Likewise the taking up of CO2 in the body capillaries and the release in the lung capillaries is facilitated by the iron containing hemoglobin, moreover hemoglobin participates in the buffering of the blood. Not only as an ampholte as all protein bodies-that is, in the property of being a weak acid and a weak base at the same time- does the buffer action exist, but also especially in that the oxyhemoglobin is relatively acid and reduced hemoglobin is relatively alkaline. The preponderance of reduced hemoglobin in the venous capillaries also signifies a tendency to alkalinity. By this the streaming in of CO2 into the blood will be facilitated without the acid-base equilibrium in the blood varying markedly. After yielding CO2 the alkalinity developing will be buffered by the formation of oxyhemoglobin.

The general function of iron in the respiratory ferment of the cells has become known through the work of Warburg. The respiratory ferment is an organic iron containing pigment staining very close to haemin. It has the task of oxidizing the hydrogen rich carbohydrate fraction remaining after fermentative splitting. Whether this occurs through the activation of hydrogen from the organic compound, as Wieland asserts, or through activation of O2 (to atomic oxygen), as Warburg believes, is immaterial for the effect. It is also assumed now that the activation of hydrogen as well as oxygen occurs. The cells, outside of the O2 activating respiratory ferment of Warburg, also contain hydrogen acceptore (as Kelin’s cytochrome), which with the help of suitable ferments (dehydrases) can activate the H of the organic compounds and react with the molecular O2.

Likewise the other catalysors belonging to the mechanism of cell oxidation are haemins: the peroxydase, the peroxide (as H2O2) activator, that is, liberate the atomic oxygen from it and the catalase, H2O2 being decomposed into H2O and O and thereby an excess of H2O2 made harmless.

The red blood cells in this respect contain no respiratory ferment, hemoglobin not being a respiratory ferment in the sense of an activation of O2 but only a carrier of it.

Both the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin as well as the respiratory ferment of cell respiration can be poisoned through anticatalysors like HCN. It occurs through a transformation of iron in a complex compound with CN which thereby becomes inactivated. Exactly like hemoglobin, the respiratory ferment can be poisoned by carbon monoxide. Warburg was able to again detoxify this combination of carbon monoxide and the respiratory ferment by radiation, and indeed with various strengths according to the wave lengths of the light. The corresponding facilitation of dissociation of CO-hemoglobin by ultra-violet rays was previously known. 595


Up to a certain degree the oxidative action can be augmented by increased introduction of iron: at least metabolic investigations with animal diets of iron rich food shows an essentially higher

O2 use than the normal animal. A markedly increased new formation of blood also occurs but an increased destruction maintains the equilibrium so that the normal number of red blood cells is maintained. Distinct actions of iron are apparent only with a previously disturbed equilibrium.

A physiologic role of iron in growth is made probable through the combination of functional iron in the cell nucleus in the nucleo- albumins. Likewise with a continuous iron free diet, animals of the second generation are retarded in growth and the aplasia of the thymus observed may be connected with this.

In the age of sexual maturity the influence on the generative organs stands in the foreground and this is made distinct in the human the disturbance of iron metabolism in chlorosis.


The classical field of standard iron therapy, chlorosis, today has more historical and theoretic interest than practial interest because this disease has become very rare. One cannot escape the impression that this malady of the female puberal period has been markedly influenced in the last few decades but suitable foods and clothing (access of the activating sunlight).

If the decrease in the red blood cells and even more in the hemoglobin has once occurred, then the food iron in its organic combination proves inactive, even though it provides the necessary building material. Iron therapy is concerned with an “active” iron or one which can easily be made active. For this, ionized iron seems best adapted from the start. But for the dose, the physical state is obviously important. For the same which is accomplished by a dose of several grams per day is achieved by drink cures in the Stahl springs in which not even 0.1 gram is introduced in a day. Even this amount is essentially more than the physiologic requirement.

In chlorosis one is not concerned simply with a deficiency in iron. This may be concluded from the fact that in the chlorotic much more iron is found in the urine before the administration and improvement. The failure in chlorosis lies in the incapacity to bring the iron into hemoglobin formation and to promote the new formation of blood in the bone marrow, so that active iron is necessary for blood formation. In the anemias after loss of blood the situation is different. Here the organism has the capacity to obtain active iron from inactive. On this account after the exhaustion of deposits in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, iron in any form is correct, and an iron rich diet is sufficient. Ind- eed in the anemias from blood loss feeding of liver, kidney, and blood improves the new formation of blood better than iron. Pure iron preparations often prove inactive, less pure act very well, likewise from the addition of vegetables or their ashes. It is also probable that in the simple anemias from blood loss an intermediate reaction is necessary for the conversion of pure iron into a form capable of combination. One assumes that traces of copper complete this catalytic activation.

In endogenous chlorosis the situation for the utilization of iron in the formation of hemoglobin is still much more complicated. Because here the disturbance of iron metabolism lies distinctly in the opposed inter-relationship with the hormones of the female sexual organs. The incretion of the corpora lutea regulates the periodic process of maturation, the transformation of the uterine mucousa and menstruation. In this periodic process obviously special demands are made upon the iron metabolism. One might well imagine that in the process, the need for active iron is especially great. For this reason disturbances in iron economy or iron utilization are manifested earliest in this event.

Thus on the hand the defective adaptation in sexual maturity is a precondition for chlorosis, on the other chlorosis makes itself distinctly obvious in the disturbances of the corporalutea which regulate menstruation. The periods are very irregular, often missing, conception does not occur in the severe chlorotic and defective sexual sensation is frequent. If pregnancy should occur then in general it is curative.

Otto Leeser
Otto Leeser 1888 – 1964 MD, PHd was a German Jewish homeopath who had to leave Germany due to Nazi persecution during World War II, and he escaped to England via Holland.
Leeser, a Consultant Physician at the Stuttgart Homeopathic Hospital and a member of the German Central Society of Homeopathic Physicians, fled Germany in 1933 after being expelled by the German Medical Association. In England Otto Leeser joined the staff of the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital. He returned to Germany in the 1950s to run the Robert Bosch Homeopathic Hospital in Stuttgart, but died shortly after.
Otto Leeser wrote Textbook of Homeopathic Materia Medica, Leesers Lehrbuch der Homöopathie, Actionsand Medicinal use of Snake Venoms, Solanaceae, The Contribution of Homeopathy to the Development of Medicine, Homeopathy and chemotherapy, and many articles submitted to The British Homeopathic Journal,