Often from purely clinical reflections stannum iodatum -which has not been proven-is given preference. Hahnemann introduces a citation from Stahl that tin excites decomposition and consumption, while single older authors found tin curative in tuberculosis. He may also have referred to the old antihecticum Poterii.
The gastro-intestinal disturbances can be subordinated well to two clinical trends. The already mentioned sensation of weakness and emptiness in the stomach and abdomen (also after eating), the frequent unsuccessful urging to stool, loss of power of evacuati- on, exhaustion, and prolapse after stool refer to enteroptosis. Many of the proving symptoms read as though the digestive disturbances might depend upon a relaxation of the abdominal organs and wall; increased appetite and hunger without feeling of satiety, many eructations and nausea, cutting and pressure in the abdomen, especially about the umbilicus, crampy gastric and abdominal pai- ns, better from pressure. (The report: retching and vomiting from smelling foods is not to be found in the available proving symptoms.) The gastric cramps and colics are, outside of the relief from pressure, also characterized by the slow increase and decrease.
Hunger and empty sensation, accumulations of saliva in the mouth and the crampy pain about the umbilicus on the other side give the appearance of a symptomatic justification for the old use of tin in worms, particularly when taken in conjunction to the pallor of the face and the hollowness of the eyes.
Geischloger 695 saw bloody vomiting after intolerable gastric pressure from finely granulated tin, which he gave for tapeworm. On the other side Alston saw bloody vomiting stopped by tin just as a miracle. This homoeopathia involuntaria in hematemesis apparently stands as an isolated experience.
FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS
Concerning the female sexual organs the complaints associated with the prolapse or displacement and the aggravation before the menses have already been mentioned. A glassy-mucoid leucorrhoea is another observation of the provings.
Asthenic, relaxed fibre. Weak, relaxed, pale, emaciated; depressed, fatigued, trembling, failure of the extremities. Weakness of the voice and chest. Hectic. Enteroptosis.
Organ Affinities: Respiratory ORgans:
Chronic bronchitis with considerable decomposed sputum, bronchiectasis, phthisis II-III with hectic fever (green yellow eventually sweet copious sputum).
Digestive disturbances with enteroptosis, colic with the characteristic modality; complaints from worms is doubtful.
Displacement or retroversion of uterus (glassy leucorrhoea?).
Pains slowly increase and slowly decrease. Improvement from pressure. Symptoms of weakness worse on climbing stairs, worse from speaking, especially the chest symptoms. Must move around from the restlessness but soon exhaustion compels lying down.
The most common dose is the D 6 (trituration).
THE RADIO-ACTIVE ELEMENTS
With the increase of nuclear charge the qualitative differences between elements following one another in the (horizontal) periods becomes ever less. The difference of nuclear charges between 91 and 92 is absolutely the same as, for example, between 6 and 7 (C and N) but relatively considerably less. And this makes itself obvious in the heaviest elements of the periodic system in the remarkable approximation of the properties, which depend upon the differences in nuclear charge.
These radioactive elements beyond lead (84-92) pass into one another. Through radiation with alpha particles which are helium atoms with 2 positive charges, an element develops which stands two places lower in the periodic system. Through radiation with beta particles an element can be built which stands one place higher, particularly when the emitted beta particles attach themselves to the atom nucleus and not to the atom shell. Because a beta particle is an electron with a negative charge.
The material property whose constancy otherwise produces the nature of a chemical element is also variable in the elements of this series can be ascertained by simply rolling the first table (p. 71) together and looking from above down.) So here the chemical property of an element as a constant unit falls entirely behind the physical variability. The radiation with which this alteration is associated, is decisive for the action of this substance. (Besides the types of rays mentioned there is also the gamma ray, a special short wave length ultra violet light as x- ray.) Opposed to these physical actions the chemical characteristics of these inconstant elements are insignificant. Indeed radium in its chemical compounds is still recognizable as a member of the earthy alkali group, but this is entirely incidental in respect to its chief property, particularly for its actions on organisms.
Now since the radiation of these materials is something autonomous, distinct from the chemical properties so will the radioactive materials be placed correctly outside of the drug materials be placed correctly outside of the drug materia medica which concerns itself only with chemical actions (that is actions for which the material element is the ultimate unit). And if we consider the display of energy of all substances ultimately as radiant, nevertheless in the “chemically” acting substances there is such a radiation which is associated uniformly with unalterable materials, elements. Even if the difference between “physical” and “chemical” theoretically increasingly diminshes, practically this separation must be maintained.
Radiant therapy is a large promising field. When we pass over the limits to this field, so this can occur only in sp far as the homoeopathic method has taken the initiative. It is not far. The extensive approximation of many results of radiant investigation to the general conceptions of homoeopathy cannot be discussed extensively here, even though it would be very enlightening in theoretical respects. I recall simply the optimal action of intermittent quanta (that is, final units of radiating energy); phenomena of latency and sensitization in radiation with small doses; on the irritant action of slight doses; on the irritant action of slight doses (inflammation and promotion of growth), on the contrary cell destruction from large doses (whereby hypertrophic processes can appear at the border of necrosis); in the production and possible healing of malignant tumors and naevi by radium as well as x-ray; in hyperleucocytosis which is produced by injection or inhalation of radium emanation; 696 on the other hand the leucopenia, indeed aplastic leukemia (and anemia) in radium and x-ray injuries, an action which is utilized palliatively in leukemia. These are pure results which correspond to the use of drugs according to the homoeopathic method.
But at this place only scanty observations which have been determined from the internal use of radium and uranium salts are discussed.
Soon after the discovery of radium (1897), first proving of radium bromide, RaBr2, was published. 697 Another proving was published by Dieffenbach. 698 Clarke proved with the 30 centesimal potency, Dieffenbach with the 6, 12, 30 decimal potency.
According to these provings the actions of potentized internally administered radium salts proceed in the same major trends as radium and x-ray radiation, as well as those known from external and internal use of radium emanations.(Emanation, however, belongs to the inert nobel gases but here a physical action is involved.)
Inflammatory and trophic disturbances on the skin and the joints, as well as growth anomalies of epithelia are the principal working domains of radium bromide.
The first manifestation of the radiant injury to the skin is itching and burning, dermatitis; moreover, psoriasis-like and eczematous patches were also observed in the provings. The skin becomes thickened and easily excoriated on scratching. On the other hand, in one prover an eczema, fissuring, desquamating wartlike formation diminished with the D 6 during the proving. Clarke also observed the diminution of small naevi. Since the capillary widening is a well known frequent results of intensive radiation, a connection to naevus seems likely for naevus vasculosus and radium bromide (see also Acid. Fluoricum). The increased formation of pigment by radiant action should also be considered for naevi pigmentosi.
Also in dermatitis and even burns caused by radium and x-rays favorable actions have been repeatedly seen from high potencies
of radium bromide. 699 Eczema, acne rosacea, psoriasis and horny thickenings likewise are said to be cured. In radium bromide the itching is always worse at night in bed, scratching relives and washing aggravates, the skin is very sensitive to shaving; bathing in hot water relieves.
The conjunctiva and nasal mucosa were involved in the inflammation.
There was a foreign body sensation in the eyes, the nose was dry and itching; dryness in the larynx and trachea provoked a spasmodic tickling cough. The symptom was better in the fresh air. The mouth was also dry; dryness and rawness in the throat (“as from pepper”) caused thirst for cold water which relived. A sensation of warmth in the esophagus and the stomach preceded digestive disturbances; empty sensation, ravenous hunger but rapid satiety, anorexia, aversion to sweets and tobacco, nausea, distension of the stomach and abdomen relived by eructations and stools, colicky pains better from bending double, constipation alternating with diarrhoea. However these and still other mucous membrane symptoms have not been utilized therapeutically up to the present, nor has the nephritis which was also observed in the proving.
On the contrary the use of radio-active waters in baths and drinking cures in the rheumatic-arthritic complaints, 700 particularly in chronic joint rheumatism, has obtained a strong support from the provings in the sense of the simile rule. Severe pains were repeatedly observed and in almost all muscles and joints; they were dull or sharp, better from continued motion (when beginning motion now better, now worse), better from pressure and from hot baths.
The general well being was disturbed in a similar way as is known from the use of radium emanation: general discomfort, headache, vertigo, weakness, waves of faintness and palpitation are the initial symptoms; sallow complexion and emaciation follow. The vertigo and headaches are better in the fresh air.
The modern radiant therapy for goiter has been employed for a long time by E. Schlegel in the form of radioactive applications (uranothor).
In general radium bromatum is not often used in homoeopathic pot- encies. But the use of radium emanation and irritant radiation is fundamentally the same and has the same indications. How far the details from the provings, above all the modalities, make an improvement of the clinical indications possible must be taught
by further experience.
SUMMARY Chief Trends:
Inflammatory and trophic disturbances in the skin and joints. Epithelial growth anomalies.
Skin: Itching, burning, dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, acne rosacea, naevi. Necrotic processes, malignant ulcers, x-ray and radium burns.
(Mucous membranes: dryness of upper air passages. Dyspeptic disturbances.) Joints and muscles: rheumatic-arthritic complaints.
General well being: headache, vertigo, weakness, emaciation.
Worse at night from the warmth of bed, from cold washing (skin).
Better from hot air.
Better from continuous (worse with beginning) motion.
Better from pressure.
The potencies from D 12-C 30 have been recommended.
Uranium nitrate, uranylnitrate, (UO2) (NO3)2 in which uranium appears in the form of a complex oxide as a divalent base is often used for biologic studies on plants because of its relative accessibility from uranium deposits (for example in Joachimstal). Here also the stimulating action of small doses (About D 5-7) on the germination of seeds, on the photo-synthesis of carbon dioxide, on the absorption and assimilation of biogenic elements and the development of plants is shown exactly as with beta and gamma rays; on the other hand with larger doses a depression or injury to all these biologic processes appears. 701 Weak concentrations of uranium are beneficial, however, only in the presence of light, in the dark and only in the stronger concentrations it is depressing and toxic.
Up to the present the picture of uranium nitricum action has been constantly influenced by the impressions arising from the old investigations of Leconte. 702 In these much sugar was found in the urine 3-4 days after the administration. After subcutaneous injections the same finding is noted. 703 Albuminuria is always present and mucous, phosphate and chloride excretion increased. Dropsy and glycosuria was also found in uranium poisoning by Fleckseder. 704
In the intentional provings on man, 705 however, no sugar and only a trace of protein was found. Indeed the frequency and amount of urine was increased; on the other hand with large doses in the after-effect and as a toxic action in animals the amount of urine is diminished. Albuminuria and glycosuria accordingly seem to appear only in severe intoxications. It involves a renal diabetes. 706 There is no special thirst or hunger in the provings. Thirstness appeared only once after larger doses. Therefore the use of uranium nitrate in diabetes has weak support from an experimental stand-point and constantly repeated therapeutic attempts have not provided convincing results; in personal studies the result was constantly negative.
The gastric symptoms give much better indications for ulcer. With third potency nagging pain and a sensation of emptiness in the epigastric region, worse on an empty stomach occurred. Eating re- lieves the gastric pain as well as the headache. Eructations are tasteless or putrid. With larger doses (0.03-0.12 g., Kock) constant nausea and vomiting stood in the foreground. In animals inflammation and ulceration in the region of the pylorus have been found repeatedly. There are only isolated clinical confirmations for uranium nitricum in ulcer. 707
The remaining symptoms of proving are so isolated and little tested that no therapeutic recommendations can be based on them.