Here are some examples of the application of the principle of similitude in biology.
We will find them at first in the uses of small doses of hormones and of the products of secretion of endocrines.
1. Adrenaline The Adrenaline is hypertensive in gross doses, which is known to all. But the minimum doses, studied by Danielopolu and Carniol then by Petzetakis, have been proved to be capable to cause arterial hypotension. “1/350.000 of milligram to 1/30,000 milligram, the hypertension is preceded by a phase of hypotension as much important and as much durable as the dose injected is small” (Prof. Lemaire). Lian and his students have obtained a lowering down of the arterial pressure of persons suffering from hypertension with a dose of 1/700.000 milligram, a dose to which a normal subject does not react.
Thus the action of adrenaline is inversed according to the dose it is injected. But there are some variations to note according to the rapidity of the injection, according to the dilution, accordingly to the solution and according the more or less pathological state of the subject.
2,. Acetylcholine. By intra-venous injections some strong doses of acetylcholine causes the arterial tension to fall, the vasodilation of the peripheries, the bradycardia and some troubles of cardiac conductibility. On the contrary Prof.Lemaire has observed the amelioration of women suffering from chronic hypertensive nephritis “who had a brutal attack of ictus of the myocardia with a brutal tensional downfall and agonising pains. The electrocardiogram showed the inversion of the wave P and the unwedging of the isoelectric line in the interval T.S. The intravenous injection of legs of acetylcholine caused to disappear temporarily the unwedging T.S. and P. became positive.
3. Insuline. The insuline is used in gross doses for the cure of emaciation. Inversely M. Martiny has observed some notable diminutions of weight in obese subjects by prescribing Insuline in 30.
4. The genital hormones-the folliculines and the luteine: the testosterone.
The folliculine was isolated in crystallized state by Doisy,
Butenardt, Laqueur, Gerard. It may now be measured, no more in uni of rats but in ponderable units, each representing 1/10,000 of milligram. Chemically it belongs to the family of cholesterol, and a derivate of Phenanthrene. It is known that in gross doses in female mamiferas it cause hypervascularisation of the uterus ending in haemorrhages; it augments the contractility of the uterus, it hypertrophies the mammary glands, but it has no action on the ovaries. In males, it may atrophies the testicles and also hypertrophies the breasts.
Dr. Pouliot has proposed to use the folliculine in homoeopathic doses in hemorrhages of uterine origin, and since then many homoeopaths have obtained some certain results. In gross doses, the folliculine is used in the amenorrhoeas and in hypomenorrhoeas., Its indications are inversed according to the principle of similitude, in homoeopathic doses.
Similarly it is necessary to try in homoeopathic doses the male hormone or testosterone (when its action is well known) for the treatment hypergenitalism or of priapism or of mental troubles of sexual origin.
On the other hand the genital hormones, folliculine, luteine and testoterine are chemically related to carburates (cancerigenous). Lacassagne has been able to provoke the appearances of cancer of mammaes of the rats by saturating with it some rats for some months. It would then be interesting to try the hormones of the genitals in homoeopathic doses for the treatment of cancer.
5. Thyroid thyroxin and thyroid hormones.
Let us recall here that the microdose of thyroid or of thyroxin are used not only by homoeopaths but also by the officials. Thus did Lepold Levy. The posology of thyroid homoeopathic doses in the treatment of Basedow’s diseases has been indicated by Drs. Martiny and Berishac.
The vitamins. The isolation of vitamins has definitively fixed the quantities of these products which are necessary at least for the animal organism (rat, cobaye).
The vitamins A: formula C20 H30 (Karrer), may be had from carotene (yellow of eggs, carrots etc…) (Euler).
Vitamin B1. C12H18ON4S (Windaus), C12H18O2N4S (Jansen), C12H20O2N4S (Van veen) compound of a derivate of pyridine and of thiazol.
Vitamin B2: C17H20N3O6 (Kuhn) or lactoflavine.
Vitamin C: C6H6O6 (Szent Gyorgy) acid hexuronic or scorbutic.
Vitamin D (calciferol): C28 H44 O (Windaus, Bourdillon), derivate of ergosterol.
Vitamin E: C20H49O, tocopherol, recently isolated by Evans, Emerson & Emersion.
Let us precise the order of importance of the activity of these substances.
The daily dose of vitamin A, sufficient to check or to cure avitaminosis A in rat of 50-60 frs is 4 to 6.
The dose of vitamin B1, sufficient to check the avitaminosis is about 10 (y )in rat of 50-100 grs, the dose of flavine is 5 ( y ) a day. The dose of vitamin C sufficient for preventing the scorbutic diseases in cobaye of 200-400 grs is 0, 5 to 2 grs a day. The day dose of vitamin D sufficient for preventing or curing rachetism in rat of 40-50 gr is O, 1 Y.
The daily dose of vitamin D sufficient for preventing or curing avitaminosis is of the order of 10th of a milligram in the rat of 100 gr.
Really speaking inspite of their effects in very small doses and in a way which seems catalytic, the vitamins bring often a confirmation, not of the principle of similitude, but of the possibilities of action in microdoses.
Their occurence causes some troubles which disappear immediately the wanting vitamins are supplied to the organisms that are wanting in them, in quantitatively small doses but in proportion to the mass of the individual.
On the contrary there is enough ground to try some infinite doses of vitamins diluted in cases of hypervitaminosis, which is however very rare in pathology.
AMINO BASES. While the amino acids are, like the vitamins, some exogenous products, and therefore we are hardly interested in them as regards the principle of similitude, on the contrary the amino bases like the hormones, are some endogenous products.
(1) Histamine. It is the product of decarboxylation of histidine. In gross doses it acts on the soft fibres and on the digestive glands of the mammiferous dilatation of the capillaries and of fine arterioles, constrictions of the veins; exudation of blood plasma of the surface of the dilated capillaries. In the carnivorous there is besides a sanguin stasis on the surface of the liver and of splanchnic vessels and a vaso constriction of the coronaries, with sudden fall of the arterial pressure as it from a shock. The action on the soft fibres is manifested specifically on the surface of the uterus: hypertonia, spasms. On the surface of bronchioles: spasms. Similarly sometimes for the gall bladder and constantly for the soft fibres of the stomach and of the intestine: spasma, vomiting, diarrhoea.
There is besides myosis; augmention and then diminution of glycemia; hypersecretion of the glands of the stomach, of salivary glands, of pancreas, of intestines, of the liver and of the bronchi.
Its formation in the organism is of multiple origin: alimentary (smoked foods and conserved foods which contain some imidezols) but rather it is formed in all tissues on the liver and on the lungs. On the other hand it may be formed in the intestine under the influence of numerous bacillis capable decarboxyle the histidine.
Besides it is real hormone of the tissues which may be liberated after cutaneous excitation by physical agents, the traumatism, and internally by the ictuses or even by simple excitations of peripheric nerves.
Intra-arterial injection of histine may cause some haemorrhagic lesions of the gastric or intestinal mucouses. In many diseases there is exaggeration of the formation or of the liberation of histamine: digestive infections (typhoid, enteritis, dysentry); diseases of the liver and of kidneys (oedema and ascites). some cardio-renal affections (asystole, nephritis), some headaches and some glaucomas.
And histamine is used in gross doses in the treatment of myalgias, neuralgias, and arthralgias.
On the other hand “it is curious to note that histamine may, in minimum doses, serve for the treatment of pruritis, of urticaria of migraine and of asthma. In strong doses histamine may provoke all these diseases” (Prof. Rene Hazard).
It is generally used intra-dermically or of the ionisation of histamine in varying doses Ogr 0005 up to some solutions of 1/100,0000.
In homoeopathy I have tried some high dilutions of histamine by mouth without any important result. On the contrary by subcutaneous or intra-dermic injections the results are more appreciable. It is necessary to continue the experiments. using highly diluted histamine in all the troubles similar to that it can provoke.
(2) Substance of Oriel. Same is the case with substance of Oriel which is perhaps a kind of histamine. It is interesting to use in homoeopathic doses in the treatment of urticaria.
pruritis and in migraines (Clement Simon). But intra-dermic and sub-cutaneous injections are preferable than by mouth even in micro doses.
(3) Tyramine. The tyramine is obtained by decarboxylation of the tyrosine in the course of hydrolysis or out of the putrefaction of albumin. It is also found in Ergot, in mistletoes and in the saliva of some cephalopodas (R. Hazard). It also forms in the intestine of man and of animals under the influence of microbian fermentations (B. Coli, B putrificus and some pyocyanics). The tyramine is an excitant of the sympathetic system. Its physiological action is compared with those of adrenaline and is opposite of histamine, which is related in its action to acetylcholine. Tyramine causes hyperthermia and the waking up of hibernating animals. It accelerates the metamorphosis of tadpole. Experimentally it causes arterial hypertension and later on arterio-sclerosis. Normally it is the liver which should oxydise it and disseminate it. Also in case of the troubles of the liver it may be persist in excess in the organism.
On the uterus the action of tyramine may be annihilated by the presence of histamine. Tyramine and histamine are antagonistics; the first one augments the elimination of the residues of the nitrogenised substances and cause the elevation of the arterial tension; the second one dose the opposite, diminishes the elimination and causes hypotension.
it is therefore, interesting to try homoeopathic doses of tyramine in the treatment of hypertension and of arteriosclerosis using in the research all the possible ways of introduction.
Bodies with guanidic nucleus: creatine creatinine, and agmatine.
Creatine and creatinine enter into the metabolism of proteids and glucosides, as well as in the phenomena of muscular contractions. The creatine augments the effect of hypocalcemia caused by insuline.
Arginine, guanadine augment the effects of adrenalin on the arterial pressure.
To the homoeopaths it would be necessary to base themselves on the recent works observing the physiological effects of the excess of these bodies of guanidic nucleus to use it afterwards in homoeopathic doses.
Similarly for the choline and acetylcholine, which are also some amino bases.
Minerals, metals and metalloids. Examples are numerous. It is necessary to collect them together by and by and it is a necessary work for the edification of a medicine really scientific, based on the principle of similitude. Here are some short examples:
It is accepted that potassium is necessary in weak doses for the contraction of the myocardia, while in strong doses it depresses it. This justifies the homoeopathic use of Kali carbonicum. It is known that Hydrocyanic acid excites in feeble doses the centre of bulbar respiration while it inhibits in strong doses. This justifies the use of homoeopathic doses in case of goitre or in Basedow’s disease.
It is accepted that the rarefied dose of Iodine are necessary for the prophlaxis and the treatment of goitre, whereas the hyperthyroidism is related to the excess of iodine. This explains that Iodium may be used in homoeopathic doses in cases of goitre or in Basedow’s disease.
On the other hand, Fremont for the water of Vichy Amblard for the water of Vittel, have shown that the effects of the hydromineral cure are inverse according to the doses used. P. Ferreyrolles had already shown that this phenomenon may be considered as general for all mineral waters.
RADIO ACTIVE SUBSTANCES. Recall for memory that the action of the X-ray and of radium is inhibiting and stimulant as regards cancer.
VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES Alkaloids: It is admitted that Aconite provokes formication, that it to say excitation of nerves, which it benumbs in strong dose. This is one of the applications of the law of Arndt Schulz and is confirmed by the homoeopathic use of Aconite and Aconitine in microdoses.
The Strychnine in homoeopathic doses is a remedy of great value of which the indications are limited that that of Ignatia and of Nux vomica. Similar is the case with Cocaine and Coca… Recently quinine, obtained out of quinine has proved in homoeopathic doses to be an excellent remedy for cardiac troubles of tachyarythmia by auricular fibrillation or of tachycardia by hyperthyroidia, troubles that may be caused by strong gross doses of the same product.
I will not speak anything on this chapter, but it has been proved by Dr. Mondian that the therapeutic use of electric currents may be used according to the law of similitude.
Even the massage, the reflexotherapy of all kinds may give us confirmation of the principle of similitude, if one takes into account at the same time the necessity to individualise and for each individual his velocity and his reactional capacity.