The Carbon

Nausea and vomiting are centrally conditioned, because with the intravenous injection of sodium salicylate vomiting occurs, inde- ed, sooner than after an oral administration. 564

On the basis of animal investigations the ear symptoms have been traced to hyperemia and hemorrhage into the inner ear, according to the investigations of Haike, 565 however the alterations in the N. acousticus and Ganglion vestibulare and spirale are also to be recalled. However in spite of these findings an influx of blood with vascular over filling in the sensitive innerear is not excluded.566

The observations on the eyes also speak for a marked vasomotor influence, in which a series of subjective and objective salicylate symptoms have been observed. A narrowing of the retinal vessels has been reported. 567 Also in dogs after subcutaneous injection of large amounts of salicylate a decrease in visual capacity has been found, narrowing of the visual field and pallor of the optic nerve.

On the skin erythema, vesicular eruptions, and especially urticaria are often observed as untoward symptoms, more rarely a purpura. In sensitive people receiving aspirin a partial oedema may appear which however can be ascribed more to the acetyl component. Formerly salicylate solutions were used in itching eruptions, urticaria, eczema and pruritus. The external use of salicylic acid for the solution of cornified epithelium and for the suppression of foot sweat is generally known. From poisonous internal doses (13.3 grams of sod. sal.) one has seen besides stupefaction and muscle twitching also a suppression of the sweat secretion.568 On the other side the production of sweating by moderate doses is known.

Similarly animal experimentation has shown the increase of salivary and biliary secretion, on the contrary complete failure of these from larger doses. 569 In large doses salicylic acid (as well as benzoic acid) markedly increase the excretion of indican in the urine. 570 This is probably connected with a one sided in- fluence on the intestinal flora.

The usual mass use of salicyl preparations in fevers of all types chilling, grippe, rheumatism, pleuritis, pneumonia, sciatica and other forms of neuritis, headaches, migraine is found no better than in joint rheumatism but the pure symptomatic palliative effect is obvious. The limits and disadvantages of such treatment need not be discussed here nor misused by a badly informed public.


Our knowledge of the actions of salicylic acid is based for the most part on the so-called untoward effects. The provings on the healthy are insufficient. They are:

1. Lewi: Hirschel’s Ztschr. f. hom. Klin., Bd. 20, p. 106, 1875.

2. Chase: N.E.Medorrhinum Gaz., Bd. 12, p. 564.

3. Cushing: Trans. Mass. Hom. Soc., 1878/79.

4. North: Practitioner, Bd. 23, p. 184.


The chief action of salicylic acid proceeds on the nerve centers. Vertigo, ear noises, difficulty in heating, often accompanied by nausea, give the practically important indication in Meniere’s syndrome.

Generally there is a feeling of weakness, dullness of the head; headaches appear paroxysmally or remain constant, in the frontal region or over the entire head, tearing, pressive, throbbing or as a boring pain in the temples. The vertigo is rotatory with a tendency to fall to the let. Headache and vertigo are worse from motion. Uncertainty in the movements, leaning the body to one side, striking against objects, trembling of the hands occur. The difficulty in heating is accompanied by ear noises of all kinds. Also flickering, weak vision, transient blindness, squinting, mydriasis or miosis is observer in the eyes. Psychical disturbances go from poor memory to maniacal states with delirium, hallucinations and illusions.

Nausea and vomiting can appear even after proportionately small doses and may last for several days; the vomitus may be blood streaked. In severe salicylate poisoning it often amounts to hemorrhage; from the uterus (therefore in massive doses it has been used as an emmenagogue and abortifacient), from the nose, from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and as hematuria. However no use has been made of all these symptoms homoeopathica- lly. The reports on inflammation of the throat and the use in diphtheria arises from the proving of Lewi 571 and can scarcely be associated with one dose of the 1 C trituration. Offensive eructations, distension in the stomach and intestine with colicky pains, offensive diarrhoea have led to the occasional use in dyspeptic flatulence. Here the increased excretion of indican from salicylic acid is to be remembered. The gastro-intestinal symptoms also have a great similarity with those of phenol.

The undoubted action in many rheumatoid inflammatory processes is given through the already mentioned pains in the joints, which leap from one place to another, through profuse sweats which relieve, but generally weaken and through the connection to the heat center; the aggravation from movement, contact, from cold and at night, the relief from the application of warmth, in particular heat, may assist to some extent in determining suitable cases. However these signs scarcely characteristic in themselves have been partly derived from patients. Involuntary twitching and trembling appear in the muscles. With regard to the biphasic action on the secretion of sweat and the frequent use against foot sweat is the report “results of suppressed footsweat” also to be noted for the rheumatic patient.


Chief Trends:

Vasomotor syndrome. Sensorium.

Meniere’s syndrome.

Joint rheumatism.

Modalities: (uncertain) Worse from contact, motion, cold, at night.

(Results of suppressed foot sweat.) Better from warm applications, dry heat.

DOSE —- In Meniere’s syndrome it has proven useful in many cases in the D 3 trituration.


Benzoic acid is a constituent of many plants and is obtained by distillation from the resin of types of styrax. In the urine of herbivorous animals, glycocoll (amino-acetic-acid, H2N. CH2. COOH) is bound with it to form hippuric acid (C6H5. CO. CH2. COOH) (There is a similar pairing for salicylic acid in the form of salicyluric acid.) Not all the benzoic acid is paired with glycocoll and excreted as hippuric acid, but the greatest part is in men. Glycocoll is apparently only gradually liberated. Thus it is possible that benzoic acid unfolds its special influence in “rheumatic” processes in the supportive tissue on this part of the protein metabolism.

Exactly as from salicylic acid the nitrogen excretion in the urine is increased by large doses of benzoic acid. In animals the urinary output 572 and the bile excretion 573 is increased. In the antiseptic action it behaves about the same as salicylic acid. Of the mixed bacteria of the faeces, the colon group are influenced more than the coccus forms by it. The indicanuria signifies an alteration of the bacterial flora, and has been demonstrated from benzoic acid as well as salicylic acid. 574

The transition from amounts of benzoic acid which are apparently born without symptoms to very severe poisoning has been found extremely variable in dogs. 575 This is probably connected with the amount of available glycocoll.

If the detoxifying glycocoll pairing is not sufficient then the toxic symptoms are noted particularly in the nervous centers, in animals investigations in the form of spasms, ataxia and finally paralysis. After washing out an ovarian cyst with more that 100 g. of sodium benzoate, a maniacal confusion has been seen. 576 1- 2.5 g of benzoic acid or sodium benzoate in 4-5 daily periods in 12 healthy persons produced nausea, vomiting, headache feeling of sweating, burning in the esophagus, often also a sensation of hunger and digestive disturbances. 577 Nausea and vomiting, the latter revealing blood, is centrally conditioned as with salicylic acid because both are observed after parenteral use.

Inhalations of benzoic acid are still employed at times for the improvement of expectoration in bronchitis, and in the ’70s it was much used in tuberculosis on the recommendation of Rokitanski

Stockmann 578 found that benzoic acid was effective in rheumatism but somewhat less than salicylic acid. The same untoward effects are reported for benzoic acid as for salicylic acid.


The provings are compiled in:

Hering: Amerikanische Arzneiprufngen, vol. I, p. 703, 1857.


In homoeopathy benzoic acid is considered as a remedy for the rheumatic-uric acid diathesis.

As the chief symptom it has the sharp odor of the urine, like the urine of horses, as it states; offensive, sharp, penetrating, intensely “urinous” odor and indeed immediately on voiding. This is moreover an indication of an abnormal protein split product, which hippuric acid is to be considered in man, when it appears in large amounts. The urine is concentrated, dark brown or deep red. The desire for frequent voiding is present.

In patients with the uric acid diathesis, with the tendency to true gout as well as to rheumatism, the amount and salt content

Otto Leeser
Otto Leeser 1888 – 1964 MD, PHd was a German Jewish homeopath who had to leave Germany due to Nazi persecution during World War II, and he escaped to England via Holland.
Leeser, a Consultant Physician at the Stuttgart Homeopathic Hospital and a member of the German Central Society of Homeopathic Physicians, fled Germany in 1933 after being expelled by the German Medical Association. In England Otto Leeser joined the staff of the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital. He returned to Germany in the 1950s to run the Robert Bosch Homeopathic Hospital in Stuttgart, but died shortly after.
Otto Leeser wrote Textbook of Homeopathic Materia Medica, Leesers Lehrbuch der Homöopathie, Actionsand Medicinal use of Snake Venoms, Solanaceae, The Contribution of Homeopathy to the Development of Medicine, Homeopathy and chemotherapy, and many articles submitted to The British Homeopathic Journal,