1. Introduction


Dr.Bernoville proposed to deal, this year with the drainage of the circulatory apparatus, the drainage of respiratory and genital systems. Last year he studied the generalities of drainage, drainage of the digestive system of the liver, drainage of the urinary apparatuses and of the digestive system….


REMEDIES OF CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

By Dr. Fortier Bernoville

REMEDIES OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Dr.Bernoville proposed to deal, this year with the drainage of the circulatory apparatus, the drainage of respiratory and genital systems. Last year he studied the generalities of drainage, drainage of the digestive system of the liver, drainage of the urinary apparatuses and of the digestive system.

(In this book we will give only the English translation of the drainage of the circulatory and respiratory system. Later on in a separate book we will try to publish his lectures on drainage of Urinary and Genital systems.

Dr.Bernoville first of all recalls to us that the drainage is before all a practice. It is the application of Homoeopathic remedies in a hierarchical and ordered manner. The word drainage designates all the therapeutic processes which consist in draining the toxins of the organism, to derivate them, to canalise them and to reequilibriate the organism. Such is the conception of Dr.Nebel and his adepts. If they defined a theory, they defined it only as a interpretation of unquestionable therapeutic and clinical facts.

The process of drainage is different according to the apparatuses of the organism in question. The drainage of the digestive system is Quantitative, because of the mass of the rejected matter by the intestines. The drainage of the urinary system is, on the contrary Qualitative (Degree of concentration of urines, and some rejected matters), the drainage of the skin is rather a mode of derivation which is much more than the drainage properly called (in fact the skin plays a very important part in the balance of the organism which was already indicated by Paracelsus). The hepatic drainage is very important because the liver is, so to say, the centre of integration of all the digestive liquids. As regards the drainage of the circulatory system it is necessary to remember that the ancients considered four temperaments, to each of which corresponds a special circulating liquid: Digestive temperament corresponds to blood, the Bilious temperament corresponds to bile, to Nervous temperament, atrabile (We must admit that the atrabile of the ancients corresponds in reality to a circulatory element which is not liquid, but purely an energy). This classification of the ancients is very interesting in the sense that the temperamental types may be treated by some important Homoeopathic remedies: The Lymphatic corresponds to Calcarea carbonica; the sanguin to Sulphur, the Bilious to Lycopodium and the Nervous to Arsenic and Phosphorous.

Dr.Allendy has, at present, renovated that classification basing on physiopathology; individual having more or less intense tonus, more or less plasticity according to the age: He describes them thus:

1. The Atoni-Plastic: Children whose tonus is weak but whose diseases are generalised (Lymphatic of the ancients)

2 Toni-plastic: Adolescent or young adults whose pathological reactions are at the same time strong and generalised (Sanguin of the ancients).

3. Toni-aplastic: Persons reaching at the end of the adult age or at the ripe age, who have still some tonicity but whose diseases are very often localised (Bilious of the ancients).

4. Atoni-aplastic: Persons reacting at the end of the adult age; old persons who have only very little tonicity and who localise their diseases in the form of lesions (Nervous of the ancients).

The morphological classification of Sigaud in greater part, may be represented by the above types: The Atoni-plastics are digestive, the toni-plastics are respiratory, the toni-aplastics are muscular (Lycopodium type of the Homoeopaths). These general notions of temperament and morphology are important for being taken into consideration because in the case of the drainage of the circulatory system we will have to consider specially the drainage of the blood, lymph, the interstitial spaces of the heart and blood vessels.

Dr. Bernoville exposes his study in a very simple manner, but at the same time shows the interest, the exactitude and the originality of his conceptions on this important subject from physiopathological point of view.

He first considers the drainage of the circulatory apparatus according to the organic and tissue anatomy, examining the local reactions of the important Homoeopathic remedies, on the vessels, blood, lymph and lymphatic ganglions, on the interstitial spaces, on the heart, etc…Then he describes the action of the same remedies according to a conception which is at the same time very interesting and really original and of which the truth is verified in practice. Let us continue: If the blood forms a liquid mass of 5 litres in an average, it does not represent the whole liquid circulating in the organism and we know that the liquid content of the tissues may be evaluated to 40 litres in an average. This liquid mass plays a considerably important part from physiopathological point of view on which one does not give any great importance. The most capital fact is the mode of the distribution of that liquid mass is variable and allows to characterise an individual at a given time of his existence. That enormous mass of liquid may in fact flow back either towards the centre or towards the peripheries of the organism. Besides every idea of congestion, venous or arterial, we may speak of peripheral congestion and central congestion. The venous congestion itself may be peripheric of the Pulsatilla type, or portal Sepia or Nux vomica type, etc…Thus schematically we may imagine the organism as a paisa with a hole. The hole will represent the light of the digestive tube and the spaces included in us, the periphery of the coin is the ambiant milieu and the spaces included between the glands and the small circumferences of the organism taken as a whole and the circulating liquid. The well indicated remedies are capable of acting on the distribution of this circulating liquid, blood and the liquid of the tissues, thus remedying the acute pathological troubles of the patient.

The distribution of the circulatory liquid is in a great manner the function of the age: gradually as one advances in age one is put under the law of heaviness, he has ptosis and visceral congestion of the central type. This is well verified in practice; the abdominal congestion, ptosic, hepatic or prostatic, who has congestion of the viscera at night, will find while waking up, it is difficult to put his belt and after one hour he will be able to tight the belt by two to three eyes. A common fact is that, irioscopy is in accord with that conception of the central type or of peripheric type. In persons who have portal hypertension, the pre-pupillary part of the iris often appear to be more pigmented. Inversely in persons who have peripheric venous congestion, persons wanting light or air, the periphery of the iris forms often a blackish ring.

These two classifications established, classification of remedies according to the active local action of the tissue, and classification according to their decongestive action, central or peripheric, Dr. Bernoville considers the role of the vegetative nervous system and he distinguishes the remedies of vascular spasms and the remedies of atony and vascular degeneration. Then he separates the remedies of the acute stages and of the chronic stages and ends in comparing our great polychrests of the circulatory system and of the endocrines.

1. Tissular and elective local action of the remedies of the drainage of circulatory system.

A Action on vessels

1. On the arteries

Sulphur is the essential remedy of regulation of the arterial circulation. In high dilution, it acts very well to bring down the arterial tension, relatively recent and without vascular lesions. In the case of arterial lesions, one should use Phosphorous, a remedy of degeneration of the vascular walls and Scale cornutum, the fundamental remedy of arterial spasm and of obliterating arteritis, and secondarily one should think of Lycopodium, a remedy of arterial troubles associated with hepatic insufficiency.

2. On the veins.

Pulsatilla is for venous circulation as Sulphur is for arterial circulation. It is a capital remedy of the regulation of venous circulation. The subject of Pulsatilla is rather young, with violetish extremities, cold and humid and has changing mentality.

Hamamelis is classic. Clematis vitalba is indicated in some varices.

Vipera corresponds to a very acute venous congestion with urgent need of stretching the limbs. In painful varices and in phlebitis. 3. On capillaries.

Here Thuya is the most important remedy of regulation with Carbo vegetabilis when there is cyanosis of the extremities.

B. Action of the drainage on the blood

One knows that the Potassium acts on the figured element of the blood and Sodium on the plasma. Kali carbonicum will act in anemia with diminution of hematicas and Natrum muriaticum in depressions with circulatory troubles of plasma.

C. Action on the lymph and lymphatic ganglions Two important remedies: Calcarea carbonicum and Natrum muriaticum and secondarily the salts of Mercury (Action on lymphatic glands),

D. Action on the interstitial spaces

It is a delicate question. The physiology of interstitial spaces is not yet clear. Thuya is also here the most important remedy for its action on all the small capillaries. Natrum sulphuricum in high dilution seems to regulate the water content of intercellular spaces and is applicable to persons of hydrogenoid constitution, “Sponge-patient” or “Barometre patient” who suffers from retention of water. Natrum muriaticum in high dilution seems to regulate the water content and mineral salts of the cells, and generally used for young dehydrated persons, for emaciated demineralised persons. In lower dilution (3x) for example it acts inversely and in the same manner as that of Natrum sulphuricum, and it has the power to lower down the chloride retention and diminish the oedema of Bright’s disease.

E. Action on the heart

The first important remedy is Digitalis and the classical tonicardiacs. Let us insist on the value of extract of myocardia in Homoeopathic or in ponderable doses.

We may also use diuretics and renal extract to open the peripheric barrier and also we may act on the spleen (which should be considered as an organ of the circulatory system) with Ceanothus, miraculous remedy of congestive congestive splenomegaly, specially malarial. We may also think of China and of Spleen extracts.

Finally let us not forget that the bile has its origin in the muscles and in the circulation of the muscular juice: Natrum taurochloricum, Cholesterinum and Natrum sulphuricum in high dilutions are indicated in persons suffering from hepatic insufficiency and biliary insufficiency, who have the retention of residues in the muscles because of their sedentarism.

2. The homoeopathic remedies having central and peripheric action.

This means we have to study the remedies of regional localisations.

-In peripheric venous circulation we have seen Pulsatilla.

-In abdominal congestive troubles caused by portal hypertension six remedies are most important: Sepia, Nux vomica, Sulphur, Aloe, Aesculus hippocastanum and Lycopodium

-In prostatism one very faithful remedy is Sabal serrulata.

-In hemorrhoids of which the bleeding is beneficial to some subjects: Sulphur, Hamamelis, Nux vomica, Aesculus hippocastanum, suit specially to painful hemorrhoids.

-In congestive headache in women during menopause : Lachesis and Glonoin, Jugulans cineria in congestion of the neck of the hepatics.

-The whole class of migraines is important to consider. The curious fact is that these persons are demineralised having low blood pressure who are suitable to remedies like Silicea Pulsatilla, Menyanthes (headache of the vertex) and Natrum muriaticum of the Sulphur type. These are the cases of peripheric congestion.

An important fact is that some cutaneous eruptions specially on nails are some valuable marks for selecting the important remedies of the ground in the drainage of the circulatory system. These physical symptoms are really related to some physiopathological troubles of the visceras: naeve are perhaps a reflex of the circulatory, renal or hepatic troubles in persons who have become patients of Lycopodium or Thuya, i.e., to say who have hepatic or renal insufficiency. Congestions of the hands, which are cold, humid or violet indicate Thuya and Pulsatilla. Absence of moons on the nails indicates Pulsatilla, and the fact is that a remineralising treatment may cause the moons to reappear.

On the face are seen some important signs: The lips are red and congested indicate Sulphur; lips bordered with a blue line indicate Thuya; varicose veins of the cheeks indicate Thuya, etc…

3. Remedies of spasms and of vascular atony

We know that the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems play an important part in the general circulation.

(a) Remedies of vascular spasms. Cimicifuga is here an important basic remedy. It will also act on the soft muscular fibres as well as on the striated fibres.

Secale carnutum is an important remedy of vascular spasms and arteritis Cuprum, Zincum, Agaricus are rather related to venous troubles.

(b) Vascular atony: Aurum, Plumbum, Lycopodium and Syphilinum (Luesinum) are used in arterial aneurysm. Thuya and Lycopodium are used in venous aneurysm. But let us insist on Phosphorous in high dilutions. It is fundamentally a remedy of degeneration, acting specially on the vascular endothelium, Graphites on the tunic media and externa of the artery, finally of Secale which acts generally on the artery.

Bothrops and Lachesis have special action on thrombosis. In varicose dilatations let us put by the side of Pulsatilla, Thuya, Arsenicum, Clematis vitalba, Carbo vegetabilis and Calcarea fluorica.

4. Remedies of acute and chronic circulatory troubles

(b) Acute stage: Febril conditions with active congestion and strong tonicity: Aconite (Acute of Sulphur), Belladonna, Ferrum phos (reduces tonus), Gelsemium (tonus absent), Veratrum viride (localised congestion, specially pneumonia.)

-Active acute congestion of cardiac origin: Cactus grandiflorus.

-Passive congestion: Hamamelis.

-General venous congestion, acute or chronic: Pulsatilla.

-Cardiac collapse: Camphor, Veratrum album.

-Neuropathic cardiac syncope: Moschus and Ammonium carbonicum.

(a) Chronic stage. Beginning of asystole of the left heart: Sulphur. Asystole of both the right and left hearts: Phosphorus which is here the essential ground remedy with Arsenicum, a remedy of persons who defend badly against asystole.

-Pre-agonic condition with cyanosis and tendency to asphyxia: Carbo vegetabilis.

-Troubles of coagulation, infection of blood: Lachesis

5. Relation of the important ground remedies of circulatory apparatus with the endocrines

We know that the pituitary gland regulates the water metabolism, the rapidity of the heart and combustion activity. The Suprarenal regulates arterial tension; Parathyroid regulate vascular spasms. Thus for a person of Thuya and Natrum sulphuricum type we should think of possible troubles of the pituitary gland; for a patient of Sulphur or Ignatia, we should think of Suprarenal activity or of emotive hyperadrenalimia, etc…

Finally, let us know how to utilise in drainage, side by side with Homoeopathy, the other methods that have been proved useful: Hydrotherapy, Swaddling bands of derivation, Electrotherapy. etc…Let us take into account the morphology of the subject, and let us always stand on the solid ground of good clinic.

Mauritius Fortier-Bernoville
Mauritius (Maurice) Fortier Bernoville 1896 – 1939 MD was a French orthodox physician who converted to homeopathy to become the Chief editor of L’Homeopathie Moderne (founded in 1932; ceased publication in 1940), one of the founders of the Laboratoire Homeopathiques Modernes, and the founder of the Institut National Homeopathique Francais.

Bernoville was a major lecturer in homeopathy, and he was active in Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis, and a founder of the le Syndicat national des médecins homœopathes français in 1932, and a member of the French Society of Homeopathy, and the Society of Homeopathy in the Rhone.

Fortier-Bernoville wrote several books, including Une etude sur Phosphorus (1930), L'Homoeopathie en Medecine Infantile (1931), his best known Comment guerir par l'Homoeopathie (1929, 1937), and an interesting work on iridology, Introduction a l'etude de l'Iridologie (1932).

With Louis-Alcime Rousseau, he wrote several booklets, including Diseases of Respiratory and Digestive Systems of Children, Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Rheumatism, treatment of hay fever (1929), The importance of chemistry and toxicology in the indications of Phosphorus (1931), and Homeopathic Medicine for Children (1931). He also wrote several short pamphlets, including What We Must Not Do in Homoeopathy, which discusses the logistics of drainage and how to avoid aggravations.

He was an opponent of Kentian homeopathy and a proponent of drainage and artificial phylectenular autotherapy as well.