Hahnemann’s proving symptoms of homeopathy remedy Ledum from Materia Medica Pura, which Samuel Hahnemann wrote between 1811 to 1821 …

(Marsh Tea.)

(From vol. iv, 2nd edit., 1825.)

(The twigs of Ledum palustre, quickly dried and powdered, macerated in twenty parts, by weight, of alcohol, to form a tincture.)

The subjoined symptoms, though they are by no means all that might be elicited by proving on the healthy, are yet enough to show that this very powerful medicine is suitable for the most part only for chronic maladies in which there is a predominance of coldness and deficiency of animal heat, particularly as the duration of its action in large doses extends to four weeks.

The dose, in cases of disease for which ledum is homoeopathically adapted. I have found by numerous trials and multiplied experience, requires to be reduced to a small portion of a drop of the quintillionfold attenuation of the tincture.

The evil effects of this medicine when unhomoeopathically selected or given in too large doses, are relieved by frequent smelling of a such solution; but cinchona bark given for the debility produced by ledum is very injurious.

From the following symptoms compared with the similar and identical ill effects of many intoxicating beers, it may be inferred that they are adulterated to a hurtful extent and in a criminal manner with ledum, to which the police authorities should pay more attention.


The old-school authorities quoted are:

LINNAEOUS, Flora Lapponica.

PALLAS, Flora Rossica, tom. I, p. 2.

In the Fragmenta ledum has 80 symptoms, in the 1st edit. 312, and in this 2nd edit. 338.]


When walking and standing vertigo, he could hardly keep himself upright (aft. 9 h.). [Lr.]

Vertigo: the head tends to sink backwards. [Hrr.]

All day long violent vertigo, even when sitting still, which is increased by stooping, and when walking amounts to falling forwards, as if from intoxication, with feeling of heat throughout the body, especially in the face, without thirst, with pale cheeks and forehead (aft. 5 h.). [Lr.]

Stupefaction of the whole head, as in vertigo (aft. ½ h.). [Lr.]

5. Intoxication, giddiness and emptiness in the head.

When walking in the open air he is as if intoxicated. [Fz.]

Incontrollable intoxication. [LINNAEOUS, (Statement.) Flora Lapponica, p. 124.]

Loss of reason. [PALLAS, (Statement. – This was after prolonged intoxication.)Flora Rossica, tom. I, p. ii, p. 94.]

Headache, as from a blow or knock.

10. Head affected; when he makes a false step the brain is painfully shaken.

Violent headache. (With the intoxication.) [PALLAS, – LINNAEUS, l. c.]

Raging headache.

During sleep in the morning he feels a dull headache.[Fz.]

Headache that makes him feel stupid.

15. Tearing pain in the head and eye; the white and the conjunctiva of the eye are swollen and highly inflamed; the tearing pain in the eye is aggravated by lying and alleviated by sitting; the eyelids are not affected, but in the morning are sealed up as with matter, and an ill smelling moisture exudes from between them; at the same time there is evening rigor, followed by heat, nocturnal thirst, rumbling in the abdomen (with good appetite), more internal than external heat of the head, and sweat on the back and in the hair of the head (aft. 24 h.).

Pressure in the left side of the crown. [Hrr.]

Pressure in the forehead. [Hrr.]

Pressive headache on the top of the forehead with confusion of the head, especially on covering it. [Fz.]

Pressive headache all over the brain like a weight on it, with short interruptions, lasting day and night for three days. [Bch.]

20. Headache, at first all over the brain like flat heavy pressure, which the second day became a dull pressure on a small spot in the right temple. [Bch.]

Shooting pain under the right frontal protuberance, in the brain.[Hrr.]

On touching the temple aching pain. (Though no name is attached to this symptom, it occurs among the “observations of others,” and is therefore not one of HAHNEMANN’S observation.)

Aching stupefying pain externally on the forehead, as from dissipation over-night, in every position (Aft. 6 h.). [Lr.]

Crawling itching on the forehead and hairy scalp, as from lice. [Bch.]

25. Pimples and boils on the forehead.

Dry pimples on the forehead, especially in the middle, like millet seeds, without sensation, for six days (aft. 24 h.). [Lr.]

Eruption of red lumps in the face, touching them causes shooting pain.

Eruption of pimples on the forehead, as in brandy drinkers, and smarting itching on the chest as from lice, with red spots and miliary rash.

Contracted pupils (aft. 1 h.). [Lr.]

30. Dilated pupils (aft. 1.1/4, 5.1/4, 9.1/2 h.)[Lr.]

Considerable dilatation of the pupils (Soon after taking it.) [Bch.]

Excessive dilatation of the pupils.

Flickering before the eyes, he could not see anything distinctly.

Weak sight; he saw nothing with sufficient distinctness. [Fz.]

35. When he looks at anything attentively there is a halo or a flickering before the eyes, as after running quickly, and (as in vertigo) he cannot fix his look steadily on a certain object.

Lachrymation of the eyes (without inflammation of the sclerotic); the tears are acrid and smarting, and excoriate the lower eyelid and the cheek.

Smarting tears in the eyes.

Pressure on the outer border of the right orbit, worse on moving. [Hrr.]

Pain in the eye, without inflammation, a pressure behind the eyeball, as if it would be pressed out. [Bch.]

40. Great itching in the inner canthus of the eyes.

Inflammation of the eyes, with tensive pain.

Burning aching in the eyes, especially in the evening, they are gummed up in the morning, but by day they water, even in the room (aft. 4 h.).

The eyelids are gummed together, without pains.

The eyelids are full of gum, but neither swollen nor inflamed.

45. Paleness of the face, and yet not chilly.

A noise in the ears, like ringing of bells, or like a storm of wind.

Loud, but interrupted roaring in the ears, almost all day. [Bch.]

Roaring in the ears, as from wind. [Bch.]

Dulness of hearing of the right ear.

50. Transient deafness, as if something lay before the membrana tympani of both ears (aft. 13 h.). [Lr.]

Deafness of the right ear; it feels as if stopped up with cotton wool, and it seems to him as if he heard a distant ringing of bells. [Hrr.]

Slight epistaxis, bloody nasal mucus.

A burning pain, as from red hot coals, in the interior of the nose, during which the nose was painful when pressed and blown (aft. 24 h.).

Suppurating pimple on the border of the upper lip, with burning itching, which forced him to scratch, but was aggravated thereby (aft. 24 h.). [Lr.]

55. Hard pressure inward in the left lower jaw (aft. 1 h.). [Hrr.]

After some great stitches in the tooth, an intolerable, external tearing pain on the right side of the face, head and neck, all night long, which goes off after some additional stitches in the tooth, but returns from time to time, and the attacks terminate with shivering and profound sleep and absence of hunger and thirst (aft. 96 h.).

(Pressive pain on a left upper and lower incisor.) [Fz.]

Swelling of a gland anteriorly under the chin, touching causes aching pain. [Hrr.]

Fine shooting in the front part of the tongue (aft. ¾ h.). [Hrr.]

60. Dry feeling in the palate, with thirst for water, without heat. [Bch.]

Sore throat, with fine shooting pain.

Shooting in the throat when not swallowing, only in the forenoon, in sneezing there was only an aching at the back of the throat.

Sensation as of a plug in the throat, when she swallows there is shooting pain.

Want of appetite.

65. Great thirst for cold liquids, especially water (aft. 4.1/4, 8, 28 h.). [Lr.]

Continual absence of thirst. [Hrr.]

Bitter taste in the mouth. [Fz.]

A sick feeling in the stomach, as if qualmish, and at the same time bad musty taste in the mouth.

She has no hunger, and when she eats something she instantly feels as if she had eaten too much; it oppresses her and she gets nausea.

70. While eating, drawing and aching in the scrobiculus cordis. [Fz.]

On eating quickly there occurs a contractive pain in the sternum.

Dislike to the accustomed tobaccosmoking, with proper appetite for food. [Bch.]

Nausea in the morning.

Nausea. [Pallas, l. c.]

75. Every time he spits he becomes sick and inclined to vomit. [Bch.]

In the morning, after rising, retching with eructation and fulness and straining in the scrobiculus cordis. [Fz.]

A sudden flow of watery saliva from the mouth, with colic – waterbrash.

Bellyache: digging under the navel, with flow of water from the mouth, like waterbrash (aft. 2 h.). [Bch.]

Frequently occurring hiccup (aft. 2.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

80. (Bitter eructation hiccup (aft. 2.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

When walking in the open air nausea, with sweat all over the body, especially on the forehead,

Drawing pain in the abdomen.

Bellyache, as if dysentery.

Bellyache, as if the bowels were contused and weakened, a sensation such as remains after the action of a strong purgative (aft. 6 h.).

85. Bellyache, as if diarrhoea were about to come on, from the navel to the anus; at the same time anorexia, with correct taste and cold feet.

Cutting in the abdomen, every evening.

(In the left side of the abdomen feeling as if there were present in the stomach a pressing swelling, as from over-loading of that organ with food.)

In the abdominal muscles obtuse shooting and pressure between the pelvis and the last left rib. [Hrr.]

In the side, above the hip, a slow stitch, like a sharp pressure.

90. Pressure on the superior border of the left side of the pelvis up to the last false rib, more severe when walking. [Hrr.]

Discharge of flatus (the 1st d.) [Bch.]

Frequent discharge of flatus (aft. 1 h.). [Lr.]

Bellyache (cutting?), with flow of blood from the anus.

The stool is mixed with blood.

95. Faecal diarhoea, with mucus (aft. 24 h.). [Bch.]

Pappy stool, like diarrhoea, without suffering. [Lr.]

Constipation for several days.

Above the anus on the coccyx a red, moist spot, with smarting, sore itching pain, when sitting and walking (aft. 48 h.).


100. He must urinate often, and copiously every time, even at night several times (the first 12 h.). [Hrr.]

Diminished secretion and discharge of urine (aft. 12 d.). [Hrr.]

Very rare and scanty discharge of urine (the first 12 h.). [Trn.]

Frequent urging to urinate, with scanty discharge of urine (aft. 2 h.). [Lr.]

Reddish urine (aft. 24 h.). [Bch.]

105. (Yellow urine, with white chalky sediment.)

(Burning in the urethra after micturition.)

(A clawing deep in the hypogastrium, as if in the bladder)(immediately).

The flow of urine often stops, and it will not come away, and when she has urinated there is shooting pain.

Swelling of the penis: the urethra is as if swollen; he must press much in order to pass the urine, and the stream is very thin, but without pains (aft. 3 d.).

110. (Itching on the glans penis.)

Violent and continued erections of the penis. [Hrr.]

Nocturnal emissions of semen. [Hrr.]

Nocturnal pollutions of bloody or watery semen (aft. 12, 36 h.).

(After a nocturnal pollution so exhausted that he can scarcely drag his feet along.)

115. Catamenia some day too early.

Catamenia every fourteen days.

More profuse catamenia.

A spasmodic double inspiration and sobbing.(As with children who have cried much and have been very angry.)

On inspiring and holding the breath great tension in the subcostal region.

120. Tight, painful respiration.

All day long she could not get her breath.

Dyspnoeic constriction of the chest, aggravated by movement and walking.

Tightness of chest, with difficult, more rapid respiration, as from constriction of the chest, at the same time constant painfulness of the sternum (aft. 1.1/2 h.). [Bch.]

When going upstairs tightness of the chest.

125. Tracheal asthma.

A crawling in the trachea, followed by rapid, tight breath.

(Foetid breath.)

Before the cough comes she loses her breath, as if she would be suffocated.

Cough without expectoration (aft. 40 h.). [Bch.]

130. With slight cough, expectoration of blood.

With severe cough, profuse expectoration of blood.

Expectoration of bright red blood with violent cough.

Only nocturnal or morning cough, with purulent expectoration.

A hoarse, rough, scrapy condition (in the windpipe) on the chest (aft. 48 h.).

135. A pain in the sternum.

Pain externally in the right side of the chest, as when a wound is pressed on, per se, but more when touched,

During respiration a pain in the chest, as if something alive caused uneasiness there.

Drawing externally on the chest, when walking and inspiring, accompanied by single stitches. [Fz.]

Drawing in the sides of the chest, especially during inspiration, accompanied by single stitches. [Fz.]

140. Pain of the sternum, as if the bone were painful, in jerks, like digging and scraping in it, without cough. [Bch.]

Pressure on the chest, when walking. [Fz.]

Pressure on the sternum, in bed, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

Hard pressure from within outwards, a hand’s breadth below the right nipple, more violent during expiration, in the morning in bed (aft. 44 h.). [Hrr.]

Tearing stitches in the side of the chest above the scrobiculus cordis, on every movement of the arm and when sitting. [Fz.]

145. Obtuse shooting on the last right true rib. [Hrr.]

In the morning, stitches in the chest. [Fz.]

A kind of sheep-pocks in the chest and upper arms, which scab off after five days.

Pressure outwards in the left axilla. [Hrr.]

Small, red, constantly-itching pimples on the back.

150. A boil on the scapula.

Under the left scapula, a bruised pain.

On moving, painful stiffness of the back and scapulae.

Painful stiffness of the back and loins, after sitting.

Obtuse shooting and pressure near the dorsal vertebrae, aggravated by inspiration. [Hrr.]

155. Spasmodic, cramp-like pain under the short ribs, and immediately above the hips, towards evening, so violent that he could have cried out, it took away his breath, and he was unable to rise from the chair without assistance (aft. 13 d.).

Pain in the loins after sitting.

A tearing from the sacrum up to the occiput, the left half of the brain and the left jaw, especially in the evening, with hot bloated cheeks, and red inflamed eyes.

Drawing in the sacrum and stiffness in the back (aft. 12 d.).

When standing, drawing pain in the sacrum, which goes off by pressing on it. [Fz.]

160. Pain in the sacrum, when rising from a seat. [Bch.]

On raising the arm, an extremely painful shooting in the shoulder.

Tearing in the right shoulder-joint. [Hrr.]

Pressure in the left shoulder-joint, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

Tearing pressure in the left shoulder-joint, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

165. Pressure in both shoulder-joints, aggravated by movement, [Hrr.]

Pain in the middle of the upper arm on movement.

A tearing pain in the arms (aft. 3 h.).

Weakness of the upper extremities, and pressure on several parts of them, a kind of paralysis (aft. ½ h.). [Hrr.]

Fine shooting itching gnawing on both upper arms, which is relieved by scratching, but soon recurs more severely. [Hrr.]

170. Pressure inwards on the right upper arm. [Hrr.]

Pressure and feeling of weight on the left upper arm.(aft. 40 h.) [Hrr.]

Intermittent tearing pressure backwards on the left upper arm, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

Pressure and tearing pressure, with feeling of heaviness, on various parts of the right arm, especially in the joints of the arm, in which the pain was very much aggravated by movement (aft. 32 h.). [Hrr.]

Pressure in the right elbow-joint, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

175. Aching tensive feeling in the muscles of the right forearm, like pain of dislocation, in all positions (aft. 24 h.). [Lr.]

Painful twitching in the upper part of the forearm. [Wth.]

Desire to stretch the upper extremities (aft. 30 h.). [Bch.]

Drawing pain in the extensor tendons of three fingers of the left hand.

A severe or fine shooting in the hand.

180. Itching miliary rash on the wrist-joint.

Tearing pain in the hands.

The palms are sweaty all day.

The periosterum of the digital phalanges is painful when pressed upon.

A lump (hard swelling) on the tendon of the thumb, near the wrist-joint, which is painful on flexing the thumb.

185. Pressure betthe metacarpal bone of the right thumb and the bones of the wrist, aggravated by movement (aft. 7 d.). [Hrr.]

Trembling of the hands when grasping and when moving them. [Bch.]

Great trembling of the hands, as from old age, especially when moving them (aft. 5 h.). [Lr.]

Tearing pain in the proximal joint of the thumb, which goes off on moving the thumb. [Fz.]

Fine tearing in the fingers of the left hand, especially in the joints, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

190. A painless lump under the middle joint of the index finger.

Pain in the both hip-joints and in the sacrum, on rising from a seat. [Hrr.]

Pressure on the right hip-joint, aggravated by movement (aft. 4 d.). [Hrr.]

Tearing pressure from the hip-joint to the ankles, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

Pinching drawing pain in both hip-joints, in the cotyloid cavity itself, which also extended down to the posterior part of the thigh. (aft. 2 h.). [Trn.]

195. Fine, itching shooting, and itching gnawing on the hip-joints, which is somewhat allayed by scratching, but then recurs more violently. [Hrr.]

The posterior muscles of thigh feel as if paralysed.

Pain, as if in the periosteum of the femur, on walking, sitting and touching, as if bruised, sore, or as if the flesh were detached from the bone.

At night, burning itching on the thighs, which when scratching only caused burning, and then went off (aft. 2 h.). [Trn.]

Fine, shooting itching gnawing on the thighs, which was somewhat allayed by scratching, but recurred more severely. [Hrr.]

200. Pressure on the left thigh, posteriorly; it is as if the muscles were not in their right places, like pain of dislocation, in every position, but especially violent when touched and when walking (aft. 12 d.). [Hrr.]

Pain in the knees, as if bruised, or sore.

Creaking and cracking in the knees.

In the knees, stiffness, only when walking.

Stiffness of the knee.

205. Tensive pain in the knee and heel, when walking, after sitting.

Trembling of the knees (and hands) when sitting and walking. [Bch.]

Weakness and pressive in the left leg from the sole of the foot to the thigh; a king of paralysis or paralytic pain. [Hrr.]

Great weakness in the knee-joints, compelling him to sit down. [Hrr.]

Weakness in the knee-joints, and when walking a tearing pressure in them [Hrr.]

210. Tearing pressure in the right knee-joint and below it, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

Obtuse shooting and pressure in the right knee-joint, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

Pain anteriorly on both patella as if bruised, when walking.

Pressure on the right side near the left patella, aggravated by movement (aft. 12 h.). [Hrr.]

In the morning, perspiration on the knee.

215. Swelling and tensive and shooting pain in the knee, when walking.

Itching eruption, in the hough.

A stretching and extension of the thighs.

A grasping pain on the calf, down along the tibia.

Tensive pain in calves, when walking, after sitting.

220. Cramp-like pain in the calves.

At night, cramp in the calves when lying, it went off on rising up, but returned immediately on lying down (aft. 24 h.).

Weakness and feeling of heaviness in the legs. [Hrr.]

In the morning he is stiff and rigid in the legs.

Stiffness of the legs, with chilliness and emptiness of the head.

225. A great weariness in the legs, as if she had walked many miles, she feels this only when sitting or lying, but not when walking.

The legs were heavy; there is often a drawing in them to above the knees.

On bending the legs, feeling as of a twitching and weariness in them.

When sitting, he gets a sensation of coldness only in the legs, but they were not actually cold.

A shooting in the ankle.

230. Pressure above the left inner ankle, aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

Pressure as with a finger under the left ankle, alike in every position. [Hrr.]

Pain in the ankle-joint, as from a sprain or bending over of the foot.

Pressure in the left ankle-joint, here and there; aggravated by movement. [Hrr.]

On the dorsum of the foot, an eruption of fine pimples, which itches in the evening.

235. Very severe gnawing itching on the dorsum of both feet; after scratching, it always becomes more violent; it was only allayed after he had scratched the feet quite raw; much aggravated by the heat of the bed. [Hrr.]

Pressure on the dorsum of the left foot, in bed. [Hrr.]

Swelling of the feet about the ankles, and intolerable pain in the ankle-joint on treading (aft. 5 d.).

Obstinate swelling of the feet.

Swelling of the legs to above the calves, with tensive pain, especially in the evening (aft. some h.).

240. Swelling of the feet for eight days.

Aching in the feet, here and there, (aft. 11 d.). [Hrr.]

Pressure on the inner border of the left foot (aft. 5 d.). [Hrr.]

Pressure on the inner border of the left foot and on its dorsum. [Hrr.]

The soles of the feet are painful when walking as if they were filled with blood.

245. Pressure on the soles of both feet, aggravated by walking. [Hrr.]

Burning pressure on the sole of the right foot, towards the fore part. [Hrr.]

Samuel Hahnemann
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) was the founder of Homoeopathy. He is called the Father of Experimental Pharmacology because he was the first physician to prepare medicines in a specialized way; proving them on healthy human beings, to determine how the medicines acted to cure diseases.

Hahnemann's three major publications chart the development of homeopathy. In the Organon of Medicine, we see the fundamentals laid out. Materia Medica Pura records the exact symptoms of the remedy provings. In his book, The Chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic Cure, he showed us how natural diseases become chronic in nature when suppressed by improper treatment.