Hahnemann’s proving symptoms of homeopathy remedy Ledum from Materia Medica Pura, which Samuel Hahnemann wrote between 1811 to 1821 …

(Marsh Tea.)

(From vol. iv, 2nd edit., 1825.)

(The twigs of Ledum palustre, quickly dried and powdered, macerated in twenty parts, by weight, of alcohol, to form a tincture.)

The subjoined symptoms, though they are by no means all that might be elicited by proving on the healthy, are yet enough to show that this very powerful medicine is suitable for the most part only for chronic maladies in which there is a predominance of coldness and deficiency of animal heat, particularly as the duration of its action in large doses extends to four weeks.

The dose, in cases of disease for which ledum is homoeopathically adapted. I have found by numerous trials and multiplied experience, requires to be reduced to a small portion of a drop of the quintillionfold attenuation of the tincture.

The evil effects of this medicine when unhomoeopathically selected or given in too large doses, are relieved by frequent smelling of a such solution; but cinchona bark given for the debility produced by ledum is very injurious.

From the following symptoms compared with the similar and identical ill effects of many intoxicating beers, it may be inferred that they are adulterated to a hurtful extent and in a criminal manner with ledum, to which the police authorities should pay more attention.


The old-school authorities quoted are:

LINNAEOUS, Flora Lapponica.

PALLAS, Flora Rossica, tom. I, p. 2.

In the Fragmenta ledum has 80 symptoms, in the 1st edit. 312, and in this 2nd edit. 338.]


When walking and standing vertigo, he could hardly keep himself upright (aft. 9 h.). [Lr.]

Vertigo: the head tends to sink backwards. [Hrr.]

All day long violent vertigo, even when sitting still, which is increased by stooping, and when walking amounts to falling forwards, as if from intoxication, with feeling of heat throughout the body, especially in the face, without thirst, with pale cheeks and forehead (aft. 5 h.). [Lr.]

Stupefaction of the whole head, as in vertigo (aft. ½ h.). [Lr.]

5. Intoxication, giddiness and emptiness in the head.

When walking in the open air he is as if intoxicated. [Fz.]

Incontrollable intoxication. [LINNAEOUS, (Statement.) Flora Lapponica, p. 124.]

Loss of reason. [PALLAS, (Statement. – This was after prolonged intoxication.)Flora Rossica, tom. I, p. ii, p. 94.]

Headache, as from a blow or knock.

10. Head affected; when he makes a false step the brain is painfully shaken.

Violent headache. (With the intoxication.) [PALLAS, – LINNAEUS, l. c.]

Raging headache.

During sleep in the morning he feels a dull headache.[Fz.]

Headache that makes him feel stupid.

15. Tearing pain in the head and eye; the white and the conjunctiva of the eye are swollen and highly inflamed; the tearing pain in the eye is aggravated by lying and alleviated by sitting; the eyelids are not affected, but in the morning are sealed up as with matter, and an ill smelling moisture exudes from between them; at the same time there is evening rigor, followed by heat, nocturnal thirst, rumbling in the abdomen (with good appetite), more internal than external heat of the head, and sweat on the back and in the hair of the head (aft. 24 h.).

Pressure in the left side of the crown. [Hrr.]

Pressure in the forehead. [Hrr.]

Pressive headache on the top of the forehead with confusion of the head, especially on covering it. [Fz.]

Pressive headache all over the brain like a weight on it, with short interruptions, lasting day and night for three days. [Bch.]

20. Headache, at first all over the brain like flat heavy pressure, which the second day became a dull pressure on a small spot in the right temple. [Bch.]

Shooting pain under the right frontal protuberance, in the brain.[Hrr.]

On touching the temple aching pain. (Though no name is attached to this symptom, it occurs among the “observations of others,” and is therefore not one of HAHNEMANN’S observation.)

Aching stupefying pain externally on the forehead, as from dissipation over-night, in every position (Aft. 6 h.). [Lr.]

Crawling itching on the forehead and hairy scalp, as from lice. [Bch.]

25. Pimples and boils on the forehead.

Dry pimples on the forehead, especially in the middle, like millet seeds, without sensation, for six days (aft. 24 h.). [Lr.]

Eruption of red lumps in the face, touching them causes shooting pain.

Eruption of pimples on the forehead, as in brandy drinkers, and smarting itching on the chest as from lice, with red spots and miliary rash.

Contracted pupils (aft. 1 h.). [Lr.]

30. Dilated pupils (aft. 1.1/4, 5.1/4, 9.1/2 h.)[Lr.]

Considerable dilatation of the pupils (Soon after taking it.) [Bch.]

Excessive dilatation of the pupils.

Flickering before the eyes, he could not see anything distinctly.

Weak sight; he saw nothing with sufficient distinctness. [Fz.]

35. When he looks at anything attentively there is a halo or a flickering before the eyes, as after running quickly, and (as in vertigo) he cannot fix his look steadily on a certain object.

Lachrymation of the eyes (without inflammation of the sclerotic); the tears are acrid and smarting, and excoriate the lower eyelid and the cheek.

Smarting tears in the eyes.

Pressure on the outer border of the right orbit, worse on moving. [Hrr.]

Pain in the eye, without inflammation, a pressure behind the eyeball, as if it would be pressed out. [Bch.]

40. Great itching in the inner canthus of the eyes.

Inflammation of the eyes, with tensive pain.

Burning aching in the eyes, especially in the evening, they are gummed up in the morning, but by day they water, even in the room (aft. 4 h.).

The eyelids are gummed together, without pains.

The eyelids are full of gum, but neither swollen nor inflamed.

45. Paleness of the face, and yet not chilly.

A noise in the ears, like ringing of bells, or like a storm of wind.

Loud, but interrupted roaring in the ears, almost all day. [Bch.]

Roaring in the ears, as from wind. [Bch.]

Dulness of hearing of the right ear.

50. Transient deafness, as if something lay before the membrana tympani of both ears (aft. 13 h.). [Lr.]

Deafness of the right ear; it feels as if stopped up with cotton wool, and it seems to him as if he heard a distant ringing of bells. [Hrr.]

Slight epistaxis, bloody nasal mucus.

A burning pain, as from red hot coals, in the interior of the nose, during which the nose was painful when pressed and blown (aft. 24 h.).

Suppurating pimple on the border of the upper lip, with burning itching, which forced him to scratch, but was aggravated thereby (aft. 24 h.). [Lr.]

55. Hard pressure inward in the left lower jaw (aft. 1 h.). [Hrr.]

After some great stitches in the tooth, an intolerable, external tearing pain on the right side of the face, head and neck, all night long, which goes off after some additional stitches in the tooth, but returns from time to time, and the attacks terminate with shivering and profound sleep and absence of hunger and thirst (aft. 96 h.).

(Pressive pain on a left upper and lower incisor.) [Fz.]

Swelling of a gland anteriorly under the chin, touching causes aching pain. [Hrr.]

Fine shooting in the front part of the tongue (aft. ¾ h.). [Hrr.]

60. Dry feeling in the palate, with thirst for water, without heat. [Bch.]

Sore throat, with fine shooting pain.

Shooting in the throat when not swallowing, only in the forenoon, in sneezing there was only an aching at the back of the throat.

Sensation as of a plug in the throat, when she swallows there is shooting pain.

Want of appetite.

65. Great thirst for cold liquids, especially water (aft. 4.1/4, 8, 28 h.). [Lr.]

Continual absence of thirst. [Hrr.]

Bitter taste in the mouth. [Fz.]

A sick feeling in the stomach, as if qualmish, and at the same time bad musty taste in the mouth.

She has no hunger, and when she eats something she instantly feels as if she had eaten too much; it oppresses her and she gets nausea.

70. While eating, drawing and aching in the scrobiculus cordis. [Fz.]

On eating quickly there occurs a contractive pain in the sternum.

Dislike to the accustomed tobaccosmoking, with proper appetite for food. [Bch.]

Nausea in the morning.

Nausea. [Pallas, l. c.]

75. Every time he spits he becomes sick and inclined to vomit. [Bch.]

In the morning, after rising, retching with eructation and fulness and straining in the scrobiculus cordis. [Fz.]

A sudden flow of watery saliva from the mouth, with colic – waterbrash.

Bellyache: digging under the navel, with flow of water from the mouth, like waterbrash (aft. 2 h.). [Bch.]

Frequently occurring hiccup (aft. 2.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

80. (Bitter eructation hiccup (aft. 2.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

When walking in the open air nausea, with sweat all over the body, especially on the forehead,

Drawing pain in the abdomen.

Bellyache, as if dysentery.

Bellyache, as if the bowels were contused and weakened, a sensation such as remains after the action of a strong purgative (aft. 6 h.).

85. Bellyache, as if diarrhoea were about to come on, from the navel to the anus; at the same time anorexia, with correct taste and cold feet.

Cutting in the abdomen, every evening.

Samuel Hahnemann
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) was the founder of Homoeopathy. He is called the Father of Experimental Pharmacology because he was the first physician to prepare medicines in a specialized way; proving them on healthy human beings, to determine how the medicines acted to cure diseases.

Hahnemann's three major publications chart the development of homeopathy. In the Organon of Medicine, we see the fundamentals laid out. Materia Medica Pura records the exact symptoms of the remedy provings. In his book, The Chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic Cure, he showed us how natural diseases become chronic in nature when suppressed by improper treatment.