Hahnemann’s proving symptoms of homeopathy remedy Hepar Sulphuris Calacreum from Materia Medica Pura, which Samuel Hahnemann wrote between 1811 to 1821 …

(From vol. iv, 2nd edit., 1825.)

(A mixture of equal parts of finely powdered oyster shells and quite pure flowers of sulphur, kept for ten minutes at a white heat, and stored up in well-corked bottles. I have found a very small portion of a grain of the million-fold attenuation (by means of sugar) quite sufficient, often too large, for a dose.)

[HAHNEMANN was assisted in this proving by FRIEDRICH HAHNEMANN and STAPF]

Two symptoms are taken from

HINZE, A. H., in Hufel. Journ. d. pr. A., Sept., 1815.

In the 1st edit the number of symptoms of hepar is 206; in this 2nd edit 298; in the Chr. Kr. there are 661.]

When driving in a carriage such great vertigo that on getting out she could not stand alone.

Faint vertigo and a staring of the eyes, as if he sat wrapped in thoughts, but without seeing anything.

On shaking the head vertigo and headache.

In the morning on awaking aching pain in the head.

5. In the morning in bed dull headache, which diminished after rising. [Stf.]

Drawing and aching in the temples by day.

In the right half of the brain a sharp pressure, varying in intensity.

Tensive headache above the nose.

In one half of the brain a continued pain as from a peg or blunt nail driven into the brain.

10. On rising up again after stooping and on every movement stitches in the head, especially after walking in the open air.

A boring pain on a small spot in the side of the head.

Boring pain in the right temple extending into the upper part of the head.

The hair falls out very much (aft. 5 d.).

The hair on several parts of the head falls out, and bald spots are formed.

15. Eruption of pimples, like wheals, on the hairy scalp and nape, which feel sore when touched, but not when let alone.

Eruption of many pimples on the side of the forehead, worst in the room, but which soon get better in the open air.

Two painless, swollen elevations on the forehead.

At night violent headache, as if the forehead would be torn out, with general heat without thirst.

In the morning as soon as he wakes until some time after rising, pain in the forehead, as if sore, almost as if bruised, increased by moving the eyes; at the same time a similar, slight, but very disagreeable pain in the abdomen.

20. Internal pain in the forehead, like needle-pricks.

From midnight onwards (in bed) until noon, pain like a boil in the forehead, and when stooping and coughing like needle-pricks; externally when touched the forehead was also painful like a boil and needle-pricks, several mornings.

On lying down in the afternoon, as spasmodic twitching in the frontal muscles, which only went off on getting up.

Boring pain in the bones of the upper part of the orbit.

(In the outer canthus of the eye a cutting pain.)

25. Eruption of pimples on the upper eyelids and below the eyes.

Inflammation, redness and swelling of the upper eyelid, with pain more aching than shooting.

On waking the eyelids are closed, so that he is unable to open them for a long time.

The eyes get sore, they become gummed up in the night; in the evening he cannot see the candle-light well, the eyes become dim and matter is secreted in them.

One eye sore, inflamed and swollen; redness of the white.

30. The eyes are red and have aching pain, especially on moving.

Aching pain in the eyeballs and bruised feeling when touched.

Yellowness of the face, with blue rings round the eyes.

Yellowish skin and complexion.

All day sensible and visible redness of the cheeks, without thirst or shivering, for several days.

35. In the evening (about 7 o’clock) heat in the face.

Heat in the face in the night and on waking in the morning.

In the morning erysipelatous swelling of the cheeks (aft. 48 h.).

Swelling of the left cheek, for two days. [Fr.H-n.]

Heat, redness and itching of the outer ears, for six days.

On blowing the nose violent stitches in the ear.

40. In the evening on going to sleep, until he falls asleep, roaring and beating before the ears.

Drawing pain in the nose, which then goes into the eyes and becomes a smarting (in the morning.)

Pain on the back of the nose on touching it, as if sore.

Bruised pain on the tip of the nose.

45. Feeling of ulcerated nostrils.

He blows coagulated blood from the nose.

Every morning some drops of blood come out of the nose.

Epistaxis, repeated two days.

Loss of the smell.

50. Very acute smell. (Seems to be curative action.)

In the middle of the upper lip a tensive pain.

Great swelling of the upper lip, which is very painful when grasped, but at other times is only tense, for three days. [Fr.H-n.]

An ulcer on the commissures of the lips. (Which bellabonna removes, as it does also many other of the sufferings caused by hepar, where the symptoms correspond together in similarity.)

Eruption on the commissure of the lips, with hot feeling there.

55. On the right side of the chin, towards the under lip, vesicles and ulcers with burning sensation.

Eruption of pimples on the chin, above and below the lips and on the neck, like wheals, which are painful as if excoriated only when touched, not when let alone.

Swelling of the gums at the back molars, with some out-pressing pain, as if a new tooth were about to come there; the pain is worst when he touches or bites on the teeth.

Twitching in the gums.

In the evening drawing toothache in a hollow tooth, as if too much blood were forced upon the nerves.

60. Toothache (aft. 1 h.). [Fr.H-n.]

Toothache, especially when eating.

Toothache (aft. 6 p.m.): the tooth commences to be loose and has drawing pain, a pain that is worse in the warm room and better in the open air, neither aggravated nor ameliorated by cold water, nor yet by applying the warm hand; not aggravated by speaking, but only by biting the teeth together, and then there is twitching in it.

A hollow tooth becomes loose and painful when biting on it (aft. 3 h.).

In the throat when swallowing and yawning, shooting pain, as if a splinter were sticking in it; on yawning the shooting goes to the ear.

65. On breathing deeply there is shooting in the throat.

On turning the head there is shooting in the throat extending to the ear.

Single fine pricks on the external parts of the neck and behind the ears, like flea-bites.

Many small papules in the nape and on both sides of the neck, but not painful. [fr.H-n.]

Bruised pain of the external cervical muscles, with sore throat; there is pain on swallowing as from a swelling in the throat (aft. 24 h.).

70. In the morning, sensation in the throat as from a lug of mucus, which will not come away – a kind if internal swelling at the commencement of the oesophagus.

Immediately after supper a pressure under the larynx, as if something were sticking in the throat.

On swallowing, a feeling as if there were a swelling in the throat, over which he must swallow.

Scraping in the throat, for three days. [Fr.H-n.]

Rough and scrapy in the throat, even per se, but it feels most sore on swallowing solid food.

75. A choking and scraping feeling in the throat, as from burnt lard, in the morning.

Scraping in the throat; it is always so full of water, that she must be constantly spitting.

In the evening after a meal he must hawk up much mucus from the throat.

She always felt as if water rose up in the oesophagus, as when one has partaken of something acid.

Flow of watery saliva from the mouth, like water-brash, which recurs next day at the same hour.

80. Flow of saliva from the mouth, with inclination to vomit.

In the morning bitter slimy taste in the mouth.

A bitter taste in the mouth; the food also tastes bitter.

Bitterness at the back of the throat, but food tastes all right.

She has an earthy taste in the throat, although food tastes tolerably natural.

85. (Loss of the sense of taste.)

(He loathes everything, especially fat.)

(He has sometimes an appetite for something, but when he gets it, he does not like it.)

He has appetite only for sour and strong tasting (piquant) things.

More thirst than hunger.

90. Intolerable thirst for wine (which she usually disliked); this thirst was only allayed for a short time by wine and water (aft. 1 h.). [Stf.]

Uncommonly great thirst from morning till evening. [Fr.H-n.]


Burning in the throat during eructation.

Nausea, frequently during the day.

95. Qualmish, inclined to vomit. [Stf.]

In the morning nausea and inclination to vomit, when sitting and standing, which ceases on lying down.

Vomiting in the morning.

Sour vomiting in the afternoon.

Aching in the stomach, after eating but little.

100. Tension in the scrobiculus cordis; he must unbutton his clothes and cannot bear to sit.

A hard pressure rising up out of the abdomen, which remains fixed in the scrobiculus cordis, and is only relieved by the discharge of flatus.

His abdomen is as hard as a stone, and there is pressure under the scrobiculus cordis.

Abdomen distented by flatulence, tightness of abdomen.

Distented, swollen abdomen, without flatulence.

105. Drawing pain in the epigastrium and at the same time over the sacrum (immediately).

Bellyache, like drawing pain.

Contractive pain in the abdomen.

Clawing in the umbilical region from both sides of the abdomen towards the middle, which sometimes rises up to the scrobiculus cordis, and causes nausea and anxious heat in the cheeks, in fits – almost as if from a chill or from the approach of the menstrual period (aft. 3 h.).

Twisting sensation above the navel.

110. Spasms in the abdomen (aft. 3 d.).

Pinching in the abdomen, as from a chill.

Violent stitches in the left side of the abdomen, just under the ribs.

A very disagreeable though slight pain in the abdomen, almost as from a bruise, from the early waking until some time after getting up, accompanied by a similar pain in the forehead.

(He feels much emptiness in the bowels.)

115. For several days, towards evening, cutting in the abdomen, without diarrhoea.

Cutting in the abdomen.

Every morning a wandering about of flatulence in the abdomen, accompanied by disagreeable feeling, especially in the sides of the abdomen; a kind of colic.

Rumbling in the abdomen.

Discharge of flatus at night.

120. The glands in the groin become painful per se, and still more when touched, they are painful as if they were swollen.

Buboes, abscesses of the inguinal glands.

With much urging very difficult evacuation of scanty, not hard faeces.

Frequent stools, also at night; very little is evacuated, and yet it is with pressing and tenesmus and exhaustion.

Diarrhoea of bloody mucus, with rumbling as if behind in the back (without pain in the abdomen).

125. Three diarrhoeic stools, and at the same time a qualmish feeling of nausea in the abdomen, with rumbling in it.

Every day a couple of slightly loose stools, preceded by some pinching; there then comes some flatus before the loose stool and some more flatus afterwards.

For several days clay-coloured stool.

Greenish stool.

A pimple above the anus, and feeling of swelling there.

130. (Burning at the anus.)

Even when first passed the urine is cloudy like whey, and deposits a white sediment (aft. 12 h.).

Urine when first passed quite pale and clear, on standing cloudy, thick, and depositing a white sediment.

Dark yellow urine; it scalds when passing.

When urinating the last drops of urine are bloody.

135. Great discharge of urine (aft. 4 d.).

He dare not urinate any more at night, at least he wakes up for it. (Curative reaction of the organism.)(The meaning of this symptom is obscure; it is omitted in the Chr. Kr.)

Impeded micturition: he must wait some time before the urine comes, and then it flows out slowly, for many days.

The urine scalds on the external parts of the genitals, and erodes the inner surface of the prepuce and makes it ulcerated.

The orifice of the urethra looks red and inflamed.

140. Itching externally on the penis and on the frenulum of the glans.

A stitch in the region of the frenulum glandis.

Shooting pain in the prepuce.

Externally on the prepuce ulcers appear resembling chancres.

Frequent sneezing (immediately).

145. Without having a cold the child blows much from its nose, of an evil odour.

Coryza and spitting of much saliva.

Coryza and scraping in the throat.

Like catarrhal fever; internally chilly and cross.

Tickle in the throat and suffocation making him cough.

150. Scrapy, scratchy cough.

When the smallest member becomes cool, there immediately occurs a cough, as from a chill and oversensitiveness of the nervous system.

(The cough is particularly troublesome when walking.)

Cough day and night.

Cough ending in sneezing.

155. Cough evening and morning.

Dry, deep cough, from tightness of the breath (suffocation) when breathing; with this deep cough there is pain in the upper part of the chest as if sore.

Suffocative cough; cough not excited by a tickling but by tightness of breath.

Cough, and on breathing deeply the most severe cough, which makes him vomit.

Dry cough on going to bed, in the evening (aft. 4 d.).

160. In the evening impulses of dry cough.

In the evening the cough teases her much.

Dry, almost uninterrupted cough from an irritation in the upper part of the left side of the throat, which is worst when talking and stooping; late in the evening it always increases and then suddenly ceases (aft. 2 h.).

After going to bed at night from 11 till 12 o’clock, violent cough (with expectoration of mucus).

Cough with expectoration of mucus, all day; a scraping irritation in the wind-pipe, but especially in the throat, excites it. [Fr.H-n.]

165. Cough frequently wakes her early from sleep.

From time to time violent fits of coughing, almost causing suffocation or vomiting.

Cough which excites vomiting.

Violent, deep cough of several impulses, which strikes painfully on the larynx and causes retching.

First in the scrobiculus cordis a feeling as of a hard body, then coughing of blood, the foetid perspiration, then weakness in the head (aft. 48 h.).

170. Bloody expectoration, with cross humour and exhaustion.

Every three or four hours a severe fit of coughing with much expectoration; but the cough does not wake him out of sleep at night.

Cough with expectoration.

Viscid mucus in the chest (aft. 5 d.).

Shortness of breath.

175. Frequent deep breathing and walking.

In the sternum shooting when breathing and walking.

In the side of the chest, towards the back, shooting pain.

Eruption of two pimples on the sternum, which are acutely painful, like wounds, and have pus in their apices.

A boil on the last right rib, which has stitches in it per se, and is very painful when touched.

180. Abscess of the axillary glands.

Frequently recurring pain in the sacrum.

In the sacrum a pain drawing hither and hither, worst when walking. [Fr.H-n.]

Severe pain in the sacrum, like a cutting through; she could neither stand, lie, nor walk, during movement and when at rest (aft. 14 d.).

In the morning in bed drawing in the sacrum and on the whole back; after rising the whole of the back was painful on moving, she could hardly move; at the same time weakness in the limbs disinclination for eating and work, with shivering, chilliness, and adipsia.

185. A pain compounded of bruised sensation and sharp pressure in the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae, but especially in the junction of the sacrum with the pelvic bones, which causes a sort of limping when walking; there is also pain when standing, sitting, and lying, which extends down into the lower extremities.

In the loins and ossa ischii pain as if dislocated, when sitting and turning the body when walking.

At night tensive pain in the back, worst when turning the body.

Some violent stitches in the back.

Pain between the scapulae.

190. Fine tearing in the left shoulder.

Some twitching here and there in the left arm.

(At night the arm on which he has lain goes to sleep.)

Bruised pain in the shafts of the humeri.

In the point of the elbow pain as if contused or aching only on moving after a long walk; it went off in the open air.

195. Drawing pain in the flexor tendons of the forearm (not in the joints).

Drawing tearing pain in the extensor tendons of the fingers and in the muscles belonging to them in the forearm.

After midnight pain in the inner side of the forearm, and over the back of thand, aching, boring, and as if excoriated, more painful when touched, less by day.

Pain in the wrist.

On the hand and wrist a small gritty eruption with itching.

200. Swelling of the right hand.

Hot swelling and redness of one hand, which causes an intolerable sprained pain when moved, that extends into the arm.

On pressing the spread-out fingers against something they knuckle up; a sort of tendency to dislocate readily.

The finger-joints are swollen and the seat of gouty pains.

Needle-pricks in one finger.

205. Two boils on one of the nates.

A red itching lump on the upper part of the left nates.

Excoriation in the fold between the scrotum and thigh.

A formicating pain in the inferior extremity which drew it quite crooked; most pain when walking and standing.

Bruised pain in the anterior muscles of the thigh.

210. All night long painful tension in the thighs and legs that prevents sleep.

Sudden pain of exhaustion in the thigh whilst walking, so that he is unable to walk further.

In the right thigh tearing pain (immediately).

On the outer side of the knee-joint and in the thigh and legs tearing pain, even when at rest, as from excessive fatigue and over exertion.

Swelling of the knee.

215. Aching pain in the hough on moving.

Great weariness in the feet, especially on ascending.

Stiff feeling in the ankle-joint, with a sensation of numbness and stiffness there.

In the evening, after having slept rather restlessly and tossed about on bed, there came on the outer side of the foot, on which he had lain without feeling pain, a pain for half an hour that made him cry out as from a violent knock or blow; the pain was allayed only by grasping the foot and stroking it with the fingers, but not by moving (aft. 36 h.).

Pain in the foot, especially in the ankle-joint, as if gathering.

220. A tearing pain in the foot at night.

Drawing burning pain in the feet to the ankles, in the evening in bed.

Burning pain in the feet, especially on their dorsum, in the morning in bed.

Swelling of the feet about the ankles, with dyspnoea.

When walking, stitch in the tendo Achillis, and when lying in bed tearing in it.

225. Some stitches on the instep.

Formication in the sole of the fott.

Tearing in the big toe, worse when walking than when standing.

A severe stitch through the big toe.

A corn that had hitherto been free from pain commences to have burning pain when pressed slightly, mingled with a stitch-like sensation.

230. The nail of the right big toe pains violently (simple or ulcerative pains) on slight pressure.

On the toe a burning itching.

Formication in the toes and tips of the fingers (aft. 24 h.).

Stitches in the joints when at rest and when moving.

Drawing and paralytic pain in the limbs, namely, in the fleshly parts of the arms, but especially of the thighs and legs.

235. Cracked lines and chaps in the hands and feet.

Even small wounds and slight injuries on the body suppurate, will not heal, and become ulcers (unwholsome, festering skin).

The ulcer bleeds on being merely gently wiped.

The affected part becomes inflamed (aft. 3 h.).

Burning and throbbing in the ulcer at night.

240. The wart inflames: stitches in it as if it would ulcerate.

Single severe stitches in the ulcer (on laughing) (aft. 4 h.).

(Fine prickly itching).

Burning itching on the body, especially in the morning on rising; after scratching white blisters appear which exude white drops and soon afterwards disappear.

Eruption of pimples the size of a pea here and there on the body.

245. Nettle rash, e.g. on the wrist.

Eroding pain in the ulcer.

An itching erosion in the ulcer.

While walking in the open air a trembling in the knees, anxiety and heat in the whole body, the soles of the feet burned.

After dinner he was weak when walking in the open air; all the limbs were fatigued and there was a stretching in them, as if he were about to have ague; on continuing to walk a cold sweat came over him; thereafter in the evening in bed he could not go to sleep on account of hot feeling; he did not fall asleep until 2 a.m.

250. Excessive excitability and sensitiveness of the nerves, e.g. on the septum of the nose.

Towards evening, from a slight pain, suddenly severe syncope.

Towards evening great drowsy weariness, with frequent, violent, almost convulsive yawning; he can hardly keep from lying down.

Samuel Hahnemann
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) was the founder of Homoeopathy. He is called the Father of Experimental Pharmacology because he was the first physician to prepare medicines in a specialized way; proving them on healthy human beings, to determine how the medicines acted to cure diseases.

Hahnemann's three major publications chart the development of homeopathy. In the Organon of Medicine, we see the fundamentals laid out. Materia Medica Pura records the exact symptoms of the remedy provings. In his book, The Chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic Cure, he showed us how natural diseases become chronic in nature when suppressed by improper treatment.