Hahnemann’s proving symptoms of homeopathy remedy Menyanthes Trifoliata from Materia Medica Pura, which Samuel Hahnemann wrote between 1811 to 1821…


(From vol. v, 2nd edit., 1826.)

(The freshly expressed juice of the whole plant just coming into flower, mixed with equal parts of alcohol.)

Ordinary medicine has hitherto known no single true way of investigating the peculiar powers of each individual medicinal substance, in order to discover what each is capable of curing. In her want of resources she knew of nothing to rely upon for this purpose, except external resemblance. She even imagined that the taste would reveal the inner medicinal power.

Accordingly all plants that had a bitter taste were considered as identical in action, and were mixed together in one mess. They were all held to possesses one quality in common, which was this sole one: they were mild tonics and strengthened the stomach (in all the innumerable and heterogeneous morbid states). So for this purpose modern doctors (a more enlightened posterity will scarcely believe it) prescribed right away extraction amarum, without indicating any bitter plant in particular of which it should be made, so that it was left to the goodwill and pleasure of the apothecary to determine what plants (they might differ as much as they pleased in respect to medicinal powers, provided only they had a bitter taste) he chose to boil down, in order to make the decoction for such an extract, in order to fulfil the imaginary intention of the doctor to affect God knows what sort of strengthening with these unknown vegetable juices.

More thoughtlessly it would be impossible to act, more contemptuously it would be impossible to treat the noble human life. For as every plant differs so strikingly in its external characters from every other plant, that botanists think they cannot too carefully enumerate their visible differences, so must they differ in their inner nature and consequently in their medicinal properties. Hence it is impossible that such an obscure expression of their internal character as a (bitter) taste can be intended to indicate the remarkable differences of the inner medicinal spirit of each of them. Consequently, we must not from the mere bitter taste determine anything either in respect to their general or their special medicinal actions, or their identity; nor must we assume the unconditional tonic action of all bitter plants without distinction as their sole medicinal power – not to mention that each of these plants always has its own peculiar bitterness, besides some other collateral taste, which cannot fail to indicate an inner difference of medicinal action, that no human reason can discern from the mere taste.

Such being the case, it follows that it would be absurd and nonsensical if we should be so foolish as to infer a stomach-strengthening action from the quality of bitterness. If not, then why should not ear-wax, the bile of animals, squills, agaric staphisagria, nux-vomica, ignatia, colocynth, elaterium, &c, be tonic, stomach-strengthening remedies? – they are surely all bitter enough! – ant yet several of them in moderate doses are capable of destroying human life.

So utterly has ordinary medicine misunderstood, so completely identical with other bitter plants has she regarded the buckbean, a plant that differs from all other bitter plants in nature, in respect to its singular appearance, its habitat, and its peculiar bitter taste. Hence it is a fact that its true, pure, peculiar medicinal effects and the morbid symptoms it produces in the healthy human body, owing to which it can cure (homoeopathically) similar natural morbid states, is so remarkably and so decidedly different from those of every other bitter plant, that it would be absurd to consider this plant as identical with other bitter plants.

Physicians of the ordinary school maunder about the gout-curing power of buckbean, just as they have done about that of other bitter plants, without concerning themselves with the injuries and the fatal effects (See W. CULLEN’s Materia Medica, ii, p. 79 (Leipzig: Schwickert, 1790). That have ensued from the persistent employment of such unsuitable medicines in cases of this sort. We do not even know unsuitable medicines in cases of this sort. We do not even know precisely what they mean by that word of many meanings, “gout,” for a number of very different painful diseases of the limbs and joints, attended by many accessory symptoms, are called by one and the same name.

And so undiscriminating ordinary medicine idly asserts buckbean has cured a number of other pathological affections (which in nature never occur in the same manner), yet when we examine for ourselves the so-called observations, some twenty, thirty, or fifty other powerful remedies were employed at the same time, or mixed up together, showing in the most palpable manner the incorrectness of the assertion that buckbean did good. Even when as very rarely happened, it was used by itself in some cases of disease, and seemed to be of use all by itself in some cases of disease, and seemed to of use all by itself, there is seldom anything worthy of imitation to be learned from these instances, because it was not administered on intelligible grounds but in a sort of random way, and the case of disease said to have been cured stands, like every other case, all alone by itself in nature, and exactly identical case never occurs, consequently it never comes under our treatment.

The accurate knowledge of the pure, peculiar, morbific effects of individual drugs on the healthy human subject can alone teach us in an infallible manner in what morbid states, even if they have never previously been seen, a medicine, accurately selected according to similarity of symptoms, can be employed as an unfailing remedy that shall over-power and permanently extinguish them.

The smallest portion of a drop of the undiluted juice I have found to be an adequate dose for homoeopathic employment in every case; further experience will perhaps show that a further dilution will suffice for sensitive persons or children.


Symptoms are taken from the following old-school authorities:

FRANCUS, JOH.. Trifolii fibrini historia Francofurti, 1701

SCHLEGEL, in Hufel. Journal, VII, iv.

In the 1st edit, there are 297 symptoms, this 2nd edit, has two less.]


(Vertigo on stooping and rising up again.)

Confusion of the head, in the room, like dazedness; the thoughts come with difficulty, though he immediately remembers everything, in the open air he feels much lighter and freer (aft. 2 h.). [Fz.]

Stupid in the head (aft. 17 h.). [Hnl.]

Pressure from within outwards in the front part of the forehead (aft. 2.1/2 h.). [Htn.]

5. On the left temple a persistent pressure, mingled with sharp stitches. [Htn.]

When leaning the head on one side dull headache.

Aching pain in the head, more violent in the open air (aft. 12 h.). [Gn.]

Aching pain in the right side of the head (aft. ¼ h.).[Gn.]

A pressing from above downwards in the head, which goes off when the hand is strongly pressed on it, but returns again, for many hours.(aft. 5.1/2 h.). [Htn.]

10. Pressive headache, that is aggravated by going up and downstairs, when it seems to him as if a heavy weight lay on the brain, which pressed out at the forehead (aft. 3.1/2 h.). [Htn.]

Aching pain on the right side of the forehead (aft. 3.1/2 h.). [Htn.]

Aching pain on the right side of the forehead, going off immediately by laying on the expanded hand (aft. 2.1/2 h.). [Gn.]

Headache in the temples, as if they were compressed from both sides, which went off by compressing with the hand, but then returned. [Trn.]

Headache, like compression on both sides, and at the same time some stitches in the occiput. [Trn.]

Persistent heaviness if the head (immediately). [Gn.]

15. Heaviness with aching in the whole head, sometimes also violent stitches in the left frontal protuberance – a headache which goes off completely on laying the head on one side. [Htn.]

Obtuse pressive pain in the forehead from within outwards, for several hours (aft. 27 h.). [Hnl.]

Compressive painfrom both sides in the crown, together with a sensation on going upstairs as if a weight pressed upon the brain at each step (aft. 2 h.). [Ws.]

Aching stupefying pain in the head, which involved the forehead especially, when at rest and when moving (aft. ½ h.). [Lr.]

Aching drawing pain in the forehead, just above the root if the nose (aft. 2 h.). [Fz.]

20. Drawing pain in the right lobe of the cerebrum, from below upwards, which ends in the occiput (aft. 4 h.). [Hnl.]

Drawing pain in the right side of the forehead (aft. 3.1/2 h.). [Hnl.]

Drawing pain in the forehead. [Fz.]

Drawing internal pain along the left frontal bone. [Fz.]

Squeezing drawing on the side of the occiput. [Fz.]

25. When sitting drawing in the occiput. [Fz.]

Tensive headache about the whole crown.

Twitching headache in the crown, epsecially after stooping (aft. 5 h.). [Ws.]

Single stitches in the left side of the brain up towards the crown (aft. 2 h.). [Mkl.]

Single stitches in the forehead towards the crown (aft. 6 h.). [Mkl.]

30. Feeling of sore pain in the skin of the left temple, on touching it (aft. 26 h.). [Gn.]

Gnawing pain externally on the crown (aft. 16 h.). [Ws.]

Burning in the scalp above the right side of the forehead (aft. 7 h.). [Gn.]

Burning above the left supeciliary arch. [Gn.]

Burning pricks in the forehead, less on the hairy scalp, with heat of the face without increased warmth of the rest of the body (aft. 12 h.). [Ws.]

35. Stitch-like tearing on the right side of the forehead, near the temporal region (aft. 1.1/4 h.). [Lr.]

Visible, but not painful twitching in the facial muscles, especially of the right side, more severe when at rest than when walking (aft. 6.1/2 h.). [Mkl.]

Dimness of the eyes, only in the open air (aft. 6 h.).[Mkl.]

On reflecting when reading frequent occurrence of blackness before the eyes (aft. 8 h.). [Mkl.]

Flickering before the eyes, so that all objects appear to be in a hopping movement, for four minutes(aft. 4 h.). [Mkl.]

40. Contracted pupils (aft. ¾, 1 h.). [Lr.]

Dilated pupils (aft. 4.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

Burning tension above the left upper eyelid, which went off by touching. [Gn.]

Aching on a small point in the eye, as if in the crystalline lens, with a sensation like vertigo, or as if the eyes became filled with tears, or of distortion of them (squinting), but without dimness of vision (when sitting). [Fz.]

Sensation inside the left lower eyelid, as if a not very hard body lay beneath it (aft. 4.1/2 h.). [Gn.]

45. Obtuse stitches in the eyeballs. [Fz.]

In the eyes a sensation as from swelling of the eyelids, or a stye on them, when keeping the eyelids still. [Fz.]

Tearing stitches in the inner canthi, during which the eyes fill with water (aft. 12 h.). [Ws.]

From time to time weeping of the eyes. [Gn.]

In both eyelids a quivering and a pressure on both eyeballs, which, however, is soon allayed after eating.

50. Sometimes rigidity of one or other eyelid, like tonic spasm, so that he cannot move it. [Fz.]

Nasty smell that excites loathing, as from rotten eggs, before the nose both in the room and in the open air, for a quarter of an hour (aft. 9 h.). [Mkl.]

Persistent ringing in the right ear, which ceases when the ear is rubbed inside, but returns immediately (aft. 4 h.). [Mkl.]

In the right ear as if he heard bells ringing (immediately). [Hnl.]

First in the right them in the left ear, some fine stitches. [Hnl.]

55. Obtuse stitches though the ear into the head, and in the facial muscles of the same side, below the eye (aft. 1 h.). [Ws.]

Small stitches in rapid succession in the left ear internally (aft. 7.1/2 h.). [Mkl.]

Pinching in the right and left ear. [Hbg.]

Itching in the interior of the right ear for three days. [Gn.]

Cold feeling in the internal ear, just as though water had got into it (aft. 1 h.). [Ws.]

60. On blowing the nose roaring in the left ear, just as if air were rushing out of it (aft. 26 h.). [Ws.]

Slight chirping before the ears, as from crickets (aft. 48 h.). [Ws.]

Shooting tearing in the posterior aspect of the cartilage of the ears and on the mastoid processes (aft. 14 h.). [Ws.]

Tension in the root of the nose.

In the morning he blows blood from the nose.

65. Painful cramp in the muscles of the right cheek, when at rest. [Htn.]

Dry, chapped lips, without thirst and without perceptible heat (aft. 3 h.). [Mkl.]

Tension in the jaws.

Stitch-like tearing in the left upper jaw, when at rest and when moving (aft. 2 h.). [Lr.]

A grumbling in the upper teeth, not increased by biting.

70. Transient very fine stitch in the right side of the neck (aft. 1 h.). [Hnl.]

Heavy feeling in the cervical muscles; he must bend the neck backwards. [Hbg.]

Cramp-like pain ending in a stitch in the right cervical muscles, which went off after touching them, but returned again (aft. 2.3/4 h.). [Lr.]

In the evening stiffness in the nape.

On moving the neck stiff feeling in the muscles of the nape (aft. 9 h.). [Ws.]

75. Tearing pressure in the nape (aft. 8 h.). [Ws.]

On walking in the open air pain in the muscles of the nape as if contused, paralysed, and tense, as after bending back for a long time (aft. 6 h.). [Lr.]

Drawing stiff sensation in the nape, with confusion of the occiput. [Fz.]

Fine stitches on the under surface of the tongue, which went off on moving it (aft. ¾ h.). [Gn.]

Aching on the top of the palate.

80. When yawning and coughing, sensation as if the left side of the palate were paralysed.

Dryness of the palate, which causes a shooting when swallowing, without thirst and with a sufficient quantity of saliva in the mouth (aft. 1 h.). [Fz.]

Dry and at the same time so rough in the oesohpagus that it is difficult for him to swallow his saliva, increasing for several days. [Gn.]

Feeling of dryness in the throat (aft. 20 m.). [Hnl.]

From the morning onwards dryness in the oesophagus, for two days. [Gn.]

85. Increased secretion of saliva (immediately). [Hnl.]

Saliva collects in his mouth, without nausea (aft. 8 m.). [Hnl.]

Water collects in his mouth, with nausea (aft. 1.1/4 h.). [Hnl.]

Persistent stitch in the throat, in the anterior part of the larynx, only when swallowing, which is hindered by it (aft. 8 h.). [Lr.]

Bitter sweetish taste in the mouth (aft. 2 h.). [Fz.]

90. Bread and butter have no taste; he has only appetite for meat, which is relished. [Hbg.]

Though he has no hunger, food tastes to him as usual and he eats almost more than usual. [Fz.]

After eating emptiness of the head.

After eating, increase of the headache like painful confusion of it. [Fz.]

After eating, drawing pain in the precordial region of the heart. [Hnl.]

95. After dinner, aching in the chest. [Fz.]

Empty eructation.

Empty eructation (immediately). [Htn.]

Frequent empty eructation (immediately, aft. ¼ h.). [Lr.]

Frequent hiccup (aft. 4.3/4 h.). [Lr.]

100. Nausea, rapidly passing off, without eructation (aft. 10 h.). [Mkl.]

Heat in the stomach suddenly occurring and lasting twenty minutes; thereafter violent hunger (aft. 3 h.). [Mkl.]

After aching in the stomach a cold sensation up the oesohagus, with great nausea, for twenty minutes (aft. 10.1/2 h.). [Mkl.]

Voracious hunger rapidly occurring and lasting half an hour, contraction on the stomach, but without eructation (aft. 10.1/2 h.). [Mkl.]

105. Contractive sensation in the stomach (aft. ¼ h.). [Hbg.]

An aching pinching in the region of the stomach, which extends slowly down towards the rectum and goes off after the discharge of some flatus, but recurs shortly afterwards, urges to stool, and then ceases (aft. ½ h.). [Htn.]

A constant rumbling in the region of the stomach, such as often occurs when the stomach is empty, though the stomach is not empty (aft. 2 h.). [Htn.]

Shooting pain beneath the short ribs, when sitting, unaltered by inspiration or expiration, removed for an instant by external pressure with the hand (aft. 3 h.). [Trn.]

Aching cutting in the subcostal region (aft. 8 h.). [Ws.]

110. Sore pain of the external abdominal integuments, when touched and rubbed by the clothing, just as if they were covered with pimples (aft. 72 h.). [Ws.]

Sore pain in the skin of the upper pof the abdomen, when lying, and also when moving, but worst when stooping (aft. 2 h.). [Gn.]

Cold feeling in the abdomen, especially when passed on by the hand.

On rising from bed in the morning, cold feeling in the abdomen; a coldness runs over the back and side, like a shudder when one hears a horrible story.

Tension and aching in a part of the abdomen.

115. Long-continued pinching in the umbilical region, which sinks down towards the hypogastrium like a weight, and goes off after a discharge of flatus (aft. ½ h.). [Htn.]

Pinching in the hypogastrium (aft. ½ h.). [Gn.]

Flatulence moves about in the abdomen, during which he feels quite qualmish. [Hbg.]

Audible rumbling in the bowels (after eating). [Hbg.]

All day long distension and fulness of the abdomen, as if overloaded by food, with undiminished appetite; at the same time sensation as from incarcerated flatulence and frequent ineffectual urging to discharge flatus, in the evening the fulness of the abdomen was much increased by smoking tobacco. [Trn.]

120. Distension of the abdomen (aft. 14 h.); two hours afterwards frequent discharge of flatus. [Mkl.]

A cutting pain darts suddenly from the spine through the abdomen (aft. 12 h.). [Ws.]

When walking, a persistent sharp stitch in the left side of the hypogastrium, followed by small, quick jerks, when standing still (aft. 12 h.). [Fz.]

Quick shooting in the side of the hypogastrium when sitting; it goes off when touched, but returns immediately. [Fz.]

(In the mons veneris a tensive aching pain, when walking and sitting.)

125. Severe pressure in the groin, as if the spermatic cord, which is also painful to the touch.

Muscular twitching in the right loin (when sitting)(aft. 3 h.). [Gn.]

Bruised pain of the left loin in the renal region, in the evening, when sitting still. [Fz.]

In the left side of the hypogastrium, shaking, twitching, quick stitches when sitting. [Fz.]

Bubbling movements o the right side of the abdomen, with feeling of heat all over the abdomen, and internal feeling as if diarrhea were coming on, when at rest and when moving (aft. ½ h.). [Lr.]

130. On bending the body forwards, aching in the glands round about the inguinal ring. [Fz.]

Along with urging to stool in the rectum, a pinching in the hypogastrium. [Fz.]

Painful itching in the interior of the rectum, a pinching in the hypogastrium. [Fz.]

Painful itching in the interoir of the rectum (aft. 13 h.). [Mkl.]

Twitching in the anus.[Gn.]

Retained stool.

135. Constipation for two days.

Constipation for thirty-two hours; then evacuation of hard faeces. [Ws.]

Constipation the first day, but the second day difficult evacuation of a hard stool with drawing, pinching pains in the hypogastrium. [Fz.]

Constipation the first day, and only on the third day two easy evacuations. [Fz.]

Pinching in the abdomen, followed by a not very hard stool, which occurred several hours earlier than usual (Curative secondary action of the organism in a person subject to constipation, who usually had a motion of the bowels not oftener than once in 32, 36 hours.) (aft. ¼ h.). [Gn.]

140. Pinching in the abdomen, followed immediately by hard stool. [Gn.]

Frequent urging to urinate, with scanty discharge of urine (aft. 4, 9.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

Great sexual desire, without excitement of the imagination and without erection of the penis (aft. 5 h.). [Lr.]

Painful twitching in the right testicle, more severe when at rest (aft. 6.1/2 h.). [Mkl.]

Both testicles are drawn up, the right most (aft. 1.1/2 h.). [Mkl.]

145. On the right side of the scrotum, aching, drawing, cutting pain, or as if it were squeezed in on one side (aft. 14 h.). [Hbg.]

Persistent burning stitches in the scrotum and in the symphysis pubis (aft. 1.1/2 h.). [Hnl.]

In the left side of the scrotum, fine stitches (aft. 3 h.). [Ws.]

Sneezing without coryza (aft. 6.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

Severe fluent coryza all day; an involuntary discharge from the nose. [Gn.]

150. During the fluent coryza the nose appeared to be stopped up, although he could draw air through it well enough (aft. 2.1/2 h.). [Lr.]

Crawling tickling in the larynx, frequently recurring (aft. 15 h.). [Gn.]

Hoarseness. [JOH, FRANCUS. (Not accessible). Trifolii fibrini historia, francofurti, 1701.]

Rough voice. [Gn.]

When speaking his voice is rough, almost hoarse, and at the same time the ears feel stopped up, as if something were pushed before them (aft. 3 h.). [Lr.]

155. Quickened respiration, even when standing, with quick pulse and redness and heat in the face (aft. 2 h.). [Trn.]

Spasmodic contraction of the larynx; the effort to draw a breath excited coughing for seven minutes (aft. 9 h.). [Trn.]

Spasmodic contraction of the larynx; the effort to draw a breath excited coughing for seven minutes (aft. 9 h.). [Mkl.]

Flying stitch in the right side of the chest (aft. 1.1/2 h.). [Hnl.]

Frequent pressure on the left side of the chest as from flatulence.

Samuel Hahnemann
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) was the founder of Homoeopathy. He is called the Father of Experimental Pharmacology because he was the first physician to prepare medicines in a specialized way; proving them on healthy human beings, to determine how the medicines acted to cure diseases.

Hahnemann's three major publications chart the development of homeopathy. In the Organon of Medicine, we see the fundamentals laid out. Materia Medica Pura records the exact symptoms of the remedy provings. In his book, The Chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic Cure, he showed us how natural diseases become chronic in nature when suppressed by improper treatment.