RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ELEMENTARY SUBSTANCES



The spastic character of Mag. phos. applies to smooth muscle as well as voluntary muscle. Spasms in children during dentition and after prolonged diarrhoea shows the relation to Calcium. Its use in chorea, epilepsy, tetanus, twitchings of the lids, spasmodic twitching of the face, spasmodic yawning, spasms of the urethra, enuresis, vaginismus, writers cramps, etc., show the affinity of this substance for the neuromuscular system.

The modalities are similar to the other Magnesium preparations as observed in the aggravation from cold, at night, and from contact, and the relief from pressure, warmth and bending double.

MAGNESIA SULPHURICA.

Mag. sulph. stands close to Nat. sulph. Both have powerful diuretic action, hence their use in diabetes. Both have soft stool, and diarrhoea characterized by the massiveness of the stool. The menses as with the other Magnesium salts are thick and black.

CALCAREA CARBONICA.

The Calc. constitution is outstanding. In affecting the processes of assimilation Calc. resembles the three disorders of nutrition, scrofula, tuberculosis and rickets. Lymphatism, plumpness and torpidity characterize the type. The hypofunction of the parathyroids, the thyroid, and the germinal glands places an increased demand upon the lymphatic apparatus embracing the lymph glands and the thymus. Tissue laxity especially of the skin and muscles, sour smelling sweats on the head, complaints during the teething of children, spasms of a paroxysmal nature, acid smelling diarrhoea, lateness in learning to walk, acid persistence, open fontanelles, the pasty appearance, suffusion and pallor, the large abdomen, and a great sensitivity to cold and dampness, portray the character of the substance. Sweating is easily provoked.

There are cold feet sweats, persistent moist, scabby eruptions, glandular swellings, polyp formations, aversion to milk and a craving for eggs. The calcium-rich milk cannot be digested, for the acid curds of milk are vomited, or the milk is passed from the intestine in white coagulated clumps. The desire for eggs indicates perhaps a Phosphorus hunger. The obesity and plumpness produce a feminine habitus, with diminished sexual vigor due to hypofunction of the germinal apparatus. The early, painful and long lasting menses are preceded by a milky leucorrhoea.

The mental state is one of depression, and the intellect is impaired. Terrifying Fantasies, anxious dreams, fear of losing the mind, and aversion to work are Calc. symptoms.

Disturbances of motility and secretion are portrayed by acid taste, acid eructations, gastric pains aggravated after eating, intolerance of tight clothing, constipation with hard white stool. A peculiarity of Calc. carb. is that he feels better as long as he is constipated.

CALCAREA PHOSPHORICA.

Calc. phos. acts too on the vegetative system, causing defective nutrition and destruction of tissue, especially of the bones and glands. The influence of Phosphorus is displayed in the greater bodily growth, tendency to asthenic gigantism with neuromuscular and psychic weakness. The weak vertebral column can hardly support the head. Instead of the Calc. carb. picture of fairness, fatness and flabbiness, the Calc. phos. individual is thin, almost emaciated, with skin of a darker color.

The abdomen is large and relaxed. There is mental retardation, and profound mental exhaustion. Chilliness, sensitivity to coldness and dampness, to change in weather and to drafts and the easy sweating are present as in Calc. carb. Glandular swellings are prominent. The substance finds many indications in bone and joint tuberculosis. There is a great tendency toward diarrhoea with green, hot stools, undigested matter, and much flatus. The craving is for salt and smoked meats. Both anterior and posterior fontanelles remain open.

STRONTIUM.

The intermediary position of Stront. between Calc. and Barium is noted in the osseous system and to Bar. in the vascular system. In the bony system there are enlargements, exostoses, osteoporosis and caries involving the femur especially in Stront. carb. Diarrhoea is a frequent concomitant in these conditions. The congestions in the head and chest cause severe pulsations. Walking aggravates all complaints, especially the pain in the region of the sternum, hence its use in coronary disease. Walking causes dyspnoea with heat and redness of the face. Cramps in the calves and soles of the feet indicate impaired peripheral circulation.

In general arteriosclerosis, the iodine compound, Stront. iodide, is more often indicated. The congestive states, especially the headaches, are relieved from the heat of the sun and warm coverings, being here similar to Mag. mur. The aggravation comes on in the evening and from lowering the head and a slow increase and decrease of pains is characteristic as in Stann. The pains are located in the tendons, ligaments and bones. The constitution of Bar. carb. is similar to that of Calcarea. The child is retarded mentally and physically, remaining dwarfed, learns to speak and walk late, is very forgetful, fearful, timid and depressed.

It influences the state of nutrition producing malnutrition, and affects especially the glands of the throat and neck. The patient is chilly, and suffers from tonsillitis after each exposure. There is a tendency to frequent angina with suppuration. The cold, clammy feet with offensive sweat point to the Calc. alliance. Its action on the heart and vascular system is prominent, making it useful in old age, just as its profound effect on the lymphatic system make it useful in the disorders of childhood. Old people who are weak and tired and sensitive to cold often need this remedy. Evidences of a disturbed cerebral circulation are vertigo, anaemia, headache, weak memory, insomnia, and finally senile dementia.

GROUP SEVEN-THE HALOGENS.

The metabolic stimulation by Iod. shows itself in the emaciation in spite of the ravenous hunger, and much eating. There is relief from eating. Excessive nervous excitability creates a state of unrest, and the urge to be doing something; during rest he is anxious and depressed. Vertigo, throbbing in the head and all over the body with fainting, pain in a small spot above the root of the nose, protrusion of the eyeballs, fluent coryza in the open air with sudden violent sneezing and lachrymation are Iod. symptoms. In a warm room and in the evening the nostrils are occluded.

The congestive headache and vertigo are due to cerebral arteriosclerosis, and the symptoms of angina pectoris expressed by heavy, oppressive pain in the region of the heart with sharp, quick, piercing, pains with precordial anxiety, obliging him to constantly change his positions, are based on the coronary sclerosis. A general aggravation is brought on from heat, from being in a warm room and when at rest. There is relief from walking about and in the open air. The restlessness produce sleeplessness with waves of heat, and fearful dreams. The trembling hands, facial muscles and eyelids, the pulsations and rushes of heat over the entire body, violent palpitation on the least exertion, the profuse sweat and even fever paint the picture of hyperthyroidism.

The swollen glands in emaciated children are hard and indolent. Acne and furunculosis of the skin are common. Laryngitis with hoarseness, aphonia and constrictive pain, is marked by the croupy cough, with difficult, wheezing, sawing respiration, and dry barking painful cough which makes the child grasp its throat with the hand.

The increased metabolism besides producing the ravenous hunger creates a tormenting thirst. The nagging pains in the epigastric region relieved after eating points to an indication for its use in gastric ulcer. Besides the action on the thyroid, it affects other glands such as the mesenteric, the mammary, the ovaries and testes. Another side of the picture of Iod., namely that of torpidity and sluggishness, is expressed in the indolence of the glandular involvements.

BROMINE.

Brom. acts powerfully on the mucous membranes of the respiratory passages, the skin and central nervous system. Bromism evokes responses in the skin and mucous membranes, similar to iodism. Seborrhoea and acne are very common. Pustular eruptions appear. The fluent coryza is accompanied by corrosive soreness under the nose and on the nostrils. As with Iod., salivation appears with Brom., and an offensive Brom. stomatitis and inflammation of the pharyngeal mucous membrane gives, just as with Iod., a picture of angina. Some provings have brought out an empty feeling in the stomach, and improvement from eating. As in Iod. there is an improvement through motion and walking about.

The chief use of Brom. preparations has been in ailments of the upper respiratory tract. All halogens have a special affinity for the throat. The picture may be one of severe laryngeal diphtheria, with scraping and rawness in the larynx. provoking cough, as if the pit of the throat were pressed against the trachea. The croupy cough comes in sudden paroxysms with suffocation on swallowing and burning under the sternum. The patient is worse from heat and hot water and close places. The hoarseness is, like all the symptoms, worse on becoming warm. Inspiration is labored, attacks of suffocation come on in a warm room. Inspired air feels cold, the aggravation from heat and over-heating, and the preference for blond, blue-eyed children, helps differentiate Brom. from Iod. in coryza. Just as Iod., it affects the glands such as the thyroid, parotids, tonsils, submaxillary, testes, ovaries and mammae producing enlargement and induration.

In sufficiently strong concentration, Chlor. causes spasm of the glottis, cough and dyspnoea of an expiratory nature. A study of Nat. mur. gives us the picture of the Chlor. element. Emaciation, with bodily as well as mental exhaustion proceeding to cachexia with pallor and dryness of the skin show the halogen tendency. Nat. mur. is chilly, yet heat, especially the heat of the sun, being badly tolerated. There is exhaustion on mental or physical effort, even on speaking. Depression and irritability characterize the mental state. Consolation aggravates the complaints. The state of mind depends on the degree of constipation, and is also aggravated during and after the menses. The time of aggravation is from 10-11 a.m.

The headache, described as though a thousand little hammers were beating is located chiefly in the forehead and temples, and often is one- sided as in migraine, and is relieved by rest and sleep or lying down. The sacral and lumbar regions are painful with a desire for firm support as by pressure against a pillow. There may be a marked downward pressure in the uterus, relieved by sitting down. The circulatory disturbances depend on the anaemia. Coldness of the lower extremities alternate with rushes of blood and severe pulsations in the head and chest. The palpitation of the heart shakes the entire body, and is worse lying on the left side; every movement increases the circulation, aggravating the hammering headache, which fresh air relieves.

Fluttering of the heart may ensue with attacks of faintness, with irregular pulse, every third beat being absent. This vascular excitation due to the chlorine content points to its use in hyperthyroidism. In malaria, the paroxysm beginning about 10 a.m. with increasing chill then fever with thirst, the headache increases to bursting, and then improves with the outbreak of perspiration. The appetite is good and even though he eats well he is emaciated. The gastric complaints are of a common variety, yet the great thirst and longing for salt are characteristic. The complexion is pale, waxy, withering.

Dryness prevails in the skin and mucous membranes. The skin may be greasy and shiny, when the sebaceous secretion are altered. Eczema and acne are common, the latter being due to the chlorine content. The lips and mouth are dry, the tongue is geographic, and the dry rectum produces the characteristic constipation with hard, dry, crumbly stools difficult to evacuate. In the eyes and nose, there is, however, acrid, copious, watery secretion, the lachrymal secretion being high in chlorine content. Many complaints, including the constipation are aggravated at the seashore.

FLUORINE.

An understanding of Fluorine can be had through a study of Fluoric acid. It has an outstanding affinity for bones. There are inflammatory processes in the long bones, with caries and necrosis. Dental caries is common. The discharges from the bones are acrid, and offensive. It finds indication in fistulae, such as dental fistula, mandibular fistula, also lachrymal and anal fistula. In these conditions, Sil. becomes complementary to Fl. acid., the latter being indicated after Sil. has exhausted its action. The differentiating feature is that Sil. is relieved by warmth, and Fl. ac. by cold. There is as in Sil. a tendency to scar formation; old scars itch and become inflamed. There is much ulceration and poor healing power.

The nails are uneven, furrowed and splinter easily. Varicose veins and varicose ulcers are common, with acrid, thin offensive secretion. There is a tendency to prolapse of the rectum with haemorrhoids. The varicosities are relieved by cold. Cirrhosis of the liver with ascites often calls for Fl.ac. There is heated general state, with relief from washing with cold water. The itching is worse from warmth. The congestive headaches are relieved by urination, which act is followed by an improvement in the general feeling also. There are profuse acid offensive sweats, and state of restlessness making constant motion necessary.

There is increased muscle activity with exhaustion and twitchings and jerkings in various parts. The aggravation from heat is carried over to the digestive processes also, for warm drinks cause eructations, nausea and diarrhoea. There is a strong desire for cold drinks. A constant desire for food due to hunger is noted and eating relieves the feeling of emptiness, the heat in the abdomen and headache. The general state may be one of cachexia and emaciation. The catarrhal symptoms of the nasal passages and the eyes, with lachrymation as well as the salivation show, too, the alliance with Iod.

Joseph L. Kaplowe