THE EFFECTS OF GLONOINE FROM ABSORPTION THROUGH THE OLFACTORY CHANNELS


This remedy is chiefly circulatory in its action. Marked circulatory congestion. The pulsations in the head and chest jar the whole body. The head symptoms are most pronounced; and the drug is on a par with and very similar to Belladonna. There is a sensation as if the heart were in the neck, and with each pulsation there would be a rush of blood to the head and chest with throbbing pains.


I will discuss the effects after we first consider the cause and the method of absorption. I will also take up briefly provings of this drug manifested in symptoms exhibited by those employed in its manufacture.

Let us first consider the mechanism of the olfactory apparatus. The olfactory nerves are the special nerves of the sense of smell, and are spread out in a fine network over the surface of the superior nasal conchae and the upper third of the nasal septum, occupying an area of about 500 square m.m. The olfactory nerves end in special organs known as olfactory cells which lie among supporting epithelial cells of a columnar shape. Each cell bears on its free end a tuft of six to eight fine hair-like processes. At the free edge of the cells there is a limiting membrane through which the olfactory hairs project.

The central portion of the olfactory cells are prolonged as nerve fibres into a mass of grey matter, called the olfactory bulb, which rests upon the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. From the olfactory bulb other fibres extend inward and connect with various centers of the cerebrum. They arise ultimately from the anterior temporal lobes. By this synapse sensations of smell serve as a stimulus for the recall of other sensations and for the promotion of reflex responses. Examples of this reflex phenomena are the response in the secretion of saliva and gastric fluid by the odor of food. Strong irritants, such as ammonia and pepper, heat and cold, are perceived through the tactile sense of the trigeminal nerve, and not through the olfactory nerves.

Sensitivity of the olfactory apparatus varies with the individual as well as with the type of animal. Rabbits and dogs have a high degree of olfactory sensitivity. In man there are all degrees of sensitivity. By taking known amounts of odoriferous substance and diluting them to known quantities it is possible to express in weights the minimal amount of each substance that cause a sensation. By this method such figures as the following are obtained:.

Camphor is perceived I part in 400,000.

Musk is perceived I part in 8,000,000.

Vanillin is perceived I part in 10,000,000.

Mercaptan is perceived 1/460,000,.000 mg,. in 50 c.c. of air. This is equivalent to about a 15x dilution.

Depending on the individual, one person may experience a pleasant sensation from the odor of roses, while another individual will walk a mile to avoid unpleasant consequences. Stimulation of the olfactory nerves alters our economy and vital forces and a large part of our physical life. In animals as well as man, there is an intimate connection of the sexual reflexes with odors stimulating the olfactory nerves. Among the so-called special senses, that of smell is perhaps the one most closely connected with the bodily appetites. Over indulgence of this sense, according to historical evidence, has been at least associated with marked retrogression of virtue among civilized nations.

Now let us proceed with the drug in question.

Glonoine is a heavy, yellowish, oily liquid: Colorless when pure, odorless and having a sweetish pungent taste. The chemical name is glyceryl trinitrate and the formula C3H5 (NO3) 3. It is almost insoluble in H2O, but readily soluble in alcohol and ether. It has a specific gravity of 1.6.

It solidifies in the form of long needles when subjected for some time to a temperature of 8 C., and explodes with great violence if confined in a closed vessel. Its explosive property is very marked, and is brought into action by the slightest jar or blow, or even by the concussion of the atmosphere. When kept long it undergoes partial decomposition, forming glycerin and oxalic acid and some of the lower oxides of nitrogen. Combined with infusorial earth in I part to 3 it forms dynamic.

In the manufacture of nitroglycerine a mixture of 5 parts of sulphuric acid with 3 parts nitric acid is placed in large lead-lined vats to which is added purified glycerine very slowly in spray.

The rise in temperature is controlled by coils of ice water. The temperature of the mixture is watched very closely. If the temperature increases too rapidly the mixture is released into large emergency vats containing water and caustic soda, and the workmen jump down a chute to a point of safety behind a large concrete barrack, at a considerable distance from the mixture.

Only two men are allowed in the building at one time in order to prevent any great casualty. These buildings are about three stories in height and the mixing takes place on the top floor, and collection being made of the nitroglycerin on the ground floor into large tanks overlaid with water. The procedure up to this point is done in enclosed vessels. After it is collected under the water, however, there is chance for the absorption. The glonoine is then removed to a different area where it is employed in the manufacture of dynamite. The atmosphere here is also saturated with the molecular form of glonoine. The men employed in this procedure furnish us with some of our most interesting provings. Everything that is possible in the way of suction fans and ventilation is erected to prevent ill effects to workers.

C F Yeager