Reasonable and intelligent standardization of milk would be of immense value to the producer of milk and a protection to the consumer, Mr. Jarnigin declared. “But the medical profession is not competent to produce such a standard,” he said, “almost all of the milk ordinances of Georgia have been drawn by medical men. The ordinances were not satisfactory.


Grand Rapids, Mich. Opinions of two United States Senators, a Congressman and various State officials, dealing with what were said to be serious problems involving the production, distribution and consumption of milk and its derivatives, made public today by the Milk and Milk Products REsearch Bureau of Grand Rapids, Mich., show, it was said, that in many states (and in Canada) need for closer sanitary supervision was imperative, violations of laws pertaining to milk had become considerable as to number, and the milk industry almost as a whole required standardization or betterment as to product and as to method of delivery and sale.

“The food value of milk is not and never has been properly appreciated in this country,” said United States Senator Arthur Capper, of Kansas, member of the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, chairman of the Senate agricultural block. “If it were appreciated there would be an enormous increase in consumption. Probably the main thing lacking has been a central organization. Such an organization should work for a stronger and better nourished people. There is great need for just that kind of work. It would be of the greatest importance to agriculture”.

In a broad sense United States Senator Woodbridge N. Ferris, of Michigan, member of the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, favored standardization of milk. Increase in the use of milk is closely related to the health of the nation, in the belief of Congressman Ketcham, of the House Committee on Agriculture.

Establishment of a national standard of milk, say 3.50 butterfat with a corresponding percentage of solids not fat, a bacterial count, and sanitary regulations governing dairies and manufacturing (milk) plants, were favored by F.W. Stephen, of Ottawa, Canada, secretary-treasurer and acting president of the National Dairy Council of Canada. LAck of co-operation between producer and distributor was deplored by Mr. Stephen.

That a more intensive sanitary examination of milk was necessary was indicated by DR. S. Boucher, director Montreal Department of Health, who recently combatted an epidemic of typhoid carried by milk in that city, and by the chief health inspector of Toronto. “The typhoid fever epidemic, at present waning,” reported Dr. Boucher, “was the severest in the history of that disease transmitted by milk.” There we 2500 cases of typhoid in Montreal in the spring of 1927. Similar epidemics due to infected milk afflicted that city in 1922 and 1924. Quebec. Vineland, Hanover, Winnipeg and Regina reported like instances during the last seven years. Scarlet fever, diphtheria and other ailments were also traced to impure milk.

Persistent efforts of inspectors of the Dairy and Food Department of Minnesota are gradually improving milk brought to market, according to N.J. Holmberg, commissioner of agriculture, ST. Paul. “Inspectors of this department make annually thousands of sediment tests,” he said. “when the test shows the dirty milk is sold the producer is requested to make the necessary improvement. Court action follows disregard of such notice”.

More than thirty towns in Texas have adopted the FEderal standard milk ordinance, Dr. J.C. Anderson, State health officer, Austin, reported. “The problems confronting producers in Virginia,” side F.A. Buchanan, State dairy husband man, Blacksburg, “are chiefly those of economic production, the growth of more homegrown feeds and the milking of a better type of dairy cow; those of the distributors are chiefly those of centralizing distribution in the consuming centers and developing an increase in the use of milk and its products through educational work.

Development of fluid milk markets in the large consuming centers during the last ten years has created practically a twelve-month surplus. The production of butter in Virginia has trebled during the last seven years or at the rate of 25 per cent. annually”.

It will take a long time for the farmers of Georgia to realize that dairying is a profitable industry, opined Henry F. Branham, State dairy inspector, Atlanta. “Necessity has driven many incompetent persons into dairying. In that way the industry in Georgia has been hurt. But that kind of person is gradually being eliminated. The quality of production has thus been bettered. Five years ago not a pound of commercial or creamery butter was made in Georgia. Now there are too many creameries. The most important question between the producer and the distributor of milk in Georgia is the desire of the latter to make more than his lawful share of profit.

LAck of co-operation hinders the producers.” Attempts to enact legislation to prohibit the marketing of recombined milk in Georgia have failed, said Mr. Branham. Adequate supply of home-grown feeds is the most serious situation facing the dairymen of southeastern United States, is the opinion of Milton P. Jarnigin, State animal husband man, professor in the State College of Agriculture, Athens., “In many instances dairymen depend almost wholly on purchased feeds,” he said. “As a result the cost of production is high.”

Reasonable and intelligent standardization of milk would be of immense value to the producer of milk and a protection to the consumer, Mr. Jarnigin declared. “But the medical profession is not competent to produce such a standard,” he said, “almost all of the milk ordinances of Georgia have been drawn by medical men. The ordinances were not satisfactory. Views of the dairyman scientifically trained and those of the veterinarian should be given great weight in any movement toward national standardization of milk”.

Because the Legislature of 1923 did not authorize any department of the State of West Virginia to enforce the milk standard law adopted in that year there have been no reports to John W. Smith, commissioner of agriculture, Charleston. The State law as to milk does not establish a bacterial count, but many of the ordinances in WEst Virginia towns do so. Economy of production is the greatest problem encountered by the dairy industry in Maine, according to its Department of Animal Industry. “Better bulls” is one of the principal slogans of the States extension service.

Eradication of tuberculosis in dairy herds is the paramount issue in relation to the dairy industry of Massachusetts as outlined by Willard A. Munson, director co-operative extension work, agriculture and home economics, Amherst. “Milk consumers, boards of health and cattle owners are united,” said he, “in their demand the obliteration of that disease be effected as rapidly as possible.” As for the dairy farmer, his problem is to maintain enough cattle to supply the market demand for milk at the price it is willing to pay.

“There is extreme competition,” Mr. Munson averred, “among milk marketing agencies for supremacy in the market, selling milk below its market value to promote the sale of other commodities. This has a tendency to depress the sale of other commodities. This has a tendency to depress the price of milk through all agencies. At present milk is far below the price determined by supply and demand”.

Price (of raw milk) too is a problem which worries producers and distributors of Nevada, according to S.C. Dinsmore, STate food and drug commissioner, Reno. “The best means for increasing the sale of milk,” he asserted, “is by intensive advertising, bringing before the people the importance of milk in the diet and the food value it possesses”.

Data submitted to the Milk and Milk Products Research Bureau by James W. Kellogg, director-chief chemist, State Department of Agriculture, Harrisburg, Pa., revealed than in 1924 the percentage of violations of milk laws was 12.7 of 2595 samples of milk analyzed; in 1925 the ratio was 8.9 of 3782 analyses and in 1926 5.3 per cent. of 2546 tests.

Due to the infancy of the dairy industry in North Dakota no official research as to milk and its products have been established, John Husby, dairy commissioner, Bismarck, reported. The chief phase of the industry is the production of butterfat, according to C.F. Monroe, director of extension,

North Dakota Agricultural College, Fargo. Regarding a nationalized standard of milk, Mr. Monroe declared that “the standardization of regulations in the various cities or milk-consuming centers would tend to stabilize the entire production of milk” and raise its volume of sales. “educational campaigns showing the importance of milk in the diet coupled with the assurance that milk for popular consumption is produced under sanitary conditions would be of immense value to the industry as a whole,” he maintained.

In New Mexico the “big trouble,” according to E.E. Anderson, poultry-dairy specialist, State College, is to diminish the supply of milk. “I believe it would be a good thing to establish a national standard for milk in regard to its butterfat content,” he said. “Our women workers are stressing the value of milk in the diet. We feel certain this is increasing the use of milk and its products.” Mothers of newly born babes receive from the STate instructions as to the use of cows milk for their infants, said Dr. G.S. Luckett, director, STate Bureau of Public Health, Santa Fe. The first dairy commissioner of New Mexico is to be appointed soon in accordance with the law enacted by the latest Legislature.

Surplus production of milk in Florida has caused in many instances a reduction in price. In other instances the supply to the central markets was stopped. “Dairymen in Florida,” said John M. Scott, State animal industrialist, University of Florida Agricultural Station, Gainesville, “must realize the importance of making a severe cut in the cost of production, else that they must quit the business.” Bills pending in the Florida Legislature, the only measures ever introduced there in relation to the regulation of various phases of the dairy industry, deal with iced cream and the standardization of imported and domestic milk and cream, according to the office of the State commissioner of agriculture, Tallahassee.

Ivan McKellip, Ohio State dairy specialist, Columbus, declared that the producers problems in that STate were better cows, better feeling, better sires, increase in the growth of legumes and betterment in the quality of dairy products. “The distributors Problems,” said Mr. McKellip, “are the obtainment of a more uniform milk supply, a better product and a uniform system of inspection.

The producer and the distributor face a common dilemma in the acquisition of a more uniform delivery from the farm to the plant.” Most of the towns of more than 5000 population in Ohio and all the counties have milk codes all of which differ, according to W.D. Leech, chief of the division of foods and dairies, State Department of Agriculture, Columbus.

Dairying is the bigger business today in the United States, involving more capital, more manufacturing plants, more human units than any other, in the opinion of K.L. Hatch, assistant director of agricultural extension, Madison, Eis. “It is the most firmly grounded business in America,” he asserted. “It is here to stay. But the dairy business must change. It must operate in larger units, employ higher talent as leaders, organize so as to get straight through without hindrance from farmer-producer to city consumer, eliminate waste and, above all, must not lose its business to cheap substitutes.”

Annual returns from the dairy industry in the United States, Mr. HAtch said, are more than 2,500,000,000. In illustration of his contention that “dairying is the one industry really vital to our national welfare,” Mr. Hatch cited the conclusions of scientists that “milk is the one indispensable food in the human dietary.” If the dairying industry is to yield a profit it will be because of orderly marketing, “quality” good and economical production, in the estimation of Mr. Hatch.

The greatest stimulation to the production of better dairy products in the State of Washington, as visioned by Dr. Rober Prior, State supervisor of dairy and livestock, Olympia, would be the purchase of cream strictly on a grade basis by centralizers and dairies, making the necessary price differential between good and poor grades. “we are endeavoring to do that with churning cream,” Dr. Prior said. “Very many dairies are doing likewise as to the purchase of milk, paying a premium for milk within the bacterial count and sediment limit. That method is producing wonderful results in the betterment of production.

In a district in Washington State two years ago the average bacterial count was 1,000,000 per cubic centimeter; the sediment score was virtually zero. Soon after one of the leading dairies established a bacteriological laboratory, by means of which milk and cream were grades, the number of producers whose milk showed a bacterial count higher than 100,000 was reduced 10 per cent. One hundred producers whose milk showed a bacterial count of more than 1,000,000 now produced milk revealing less than 25,000. VEry many of our producers now market milk with a bacterial count of less than 5000.”

The use of motorized equipment by big dairy concerns has enabled the diary farmer to move farther from the cities, thus enabling the acquirement of cheaper land. That was one of the bright lights seen by S.S. Nelson, dean and director, STate College, Pullman, Wis. “Milk campaigns and advertisement, backed by products evolved under sanitary, that is, disease-free conditions,” said he, “showing the advantages of mils in the diet, are effective ways of increasing consumption”.

There is not State legal requirement in Maryland as to a bacterial count in milk, said A.L. Sullivan, State food and drug commissioner, Baltimore. “but in common with all food departments,” he declared, “we make use of bacterial methods of examination. It is evident that something more is needed-the character of the bacteria present and what they indicate must be determined. If the organisms are of a pathogenic type we shall have basis for action.”

What was evidently considered important by Mr. Sullivan was the recent effective co-operation of the State, the city of Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, and the producers and distributors of milk to better the quality. “The question of surplus milk,” he continued, “and that of prices for raw milk cause the most difficulty between producers and distributors.” Plans for the future of the dairy industry in MAryland include the tuberculin test for all cattle and steps toward confining the sale of milk to that either from tuberculin- tested herds or from pasteurization plants.

Probably the prime problem which confronts the producers of milk, in the opinion of H.A. Ruehe, head of the department of animal husbandry, University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana, is the proper management of herds to effect economical milk production. “We are prosecuting violators of milk laws in Illinois every day,” reported Colonel C. C. Miner, assistant superintendent, division of foods and dairies, Illinois State Department of Agriculture, Chicago. “The greater number of violations were related to low butterfat content caused largely by skimming”.


Victor E. Levine.

Professor of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, School of. Medicine, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska.

Pure chemistry has added to the science of nutrition much valuable knowledge with reference to processes of digestion, to intermediate metabolism, to the composition and distribution of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, purine bases, and with reference to the calorigenic value of foods in general. Bacteriology has added to nutrition the process of sterilization, better known as pasteurization.

It is a well recognized fact to say that the greatest advances in the field of nutrition have come neither from pure chemistry nor from bacteriology. The biological evaluation of foods, which embraces the study of the ultimate effects of food upon the living animal or human being, completely dominates the methodology of present-day research in nutrition. Evaluation of food from a purely chemical standpoint has been almost completely discarded. It remains to be seen whether the bacteriological viewpoints in relation to the heat-sterilization of food could long survive in the face of the rapidly advancing knowledge of nutrition.

Pasteurization came into being before we knew much about the effects of dead bacteria upon the higher animals. It was based upon the conception forced upon us by the limited knowledge of those days that bacteria once killed could be of no harm to the human being.

That this conception is erroneous can be inferred from the following facts: Park and Holt1, in 1903, reported that the use in New York City of milk containing 7 million to 25 million organisms per cubic centimeter, and which was subsequently pasteurized, was accompanied by a distinct increase in the incidence of diarrheal disease. Schoberg and Wallis, 2 in 1909- 10, studied the chemical changes in milk produced by bacteria and their relation to an epidemic of diarrhoea in infants. They found that organisms formed products, which reacted injuriously upon the pancreas and which brought disturbances in metabolism with attendant diarrhea.

Maud L. Menten3 has described the profound morphological changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, cerebellar cortex, cerebellum, and elsewhere resulting from injections of sterile filtrates obtained from cultures of organisms of the enteritis paratyphoid B group. Duval and Hubbard have experimentally produced glomerular nephritis in the rabbit by the administration of sterile filtrates obtained from the scarlatinal streptococcus. The pathological lesions studied in the rabbit presented a complete analogy to the nephritic lesions in human scarlatina.

That dead bacteria are by no means innocuous has also been shown experimentally by Menten and Manning,5 Zeckwer and Goodell,6 and Levine and Kolars.7 These investigators have shown that the injection of a suspension of dead organisms produces changes in blood sugar content, in temperature, and in the white count.

A still more striking illustration of the deleterious effects of killed bacteria upon human organisms is given in the death rate from gastroenteritis in infants, which occurred in Baltimore during 1922, 1923, and 1924. Dr. Mary sherwood, director of the Bureau of Child Welfare in the Department of Health in Baltimore, called attention to the fact that during the summer of 1922 there was a surprising and inexplicable increase in the mortality rate of infants under two years of age as the result of gastro- enteritis. After making inquiries she discovered that in spite of the fact that 98 per cent. of the milk of Baltimore was pasteurized, the average bacterial count of milk brought in for pasteurization during 1922, 1923, and 1924 was higher than the count during 1921.

Shrader and Swenarton8 have published an interesting report on the situation in Baltimore. They found that in the summer of 1922 the peaks in the curves for bacterial count and mortality coincided. In that year the average bacterial count rose to 10 to 12 million per cubic centimeter; in 1923 it was not over 8 million, and in 1924 it never rose above 2,200,000. In 1922 the mortality rate in Baltimore for gastroenteritis was 58 per cent. above the average rate for other American cities, but in 1923 it was 30 per cent., and in 1924 it was 39 per cent. above the average rate.

The facts cited above serve as convincing proof of that pasteurization may at times prove to be sanitation at the wrong end. Wherever necessary the law in regard to pasteurization should be amended so that only milk with a definite limit as to its bacterial population could be legally submitted to pasteurization. Besides the ever-present danger of the re- inoculation of pasteurized milk in the home, there is the additional danger in the careless handling of pre-pasteurized milk provided by the false sense of safety engendered by the subsequent treatment by heat. In the summer of 1922 the average bacterial content of the milk entering Baltimore was higher than the preceding year, but this fact at first occasioned no particular concern, because all the milk was to be effectively pasteurized.

Pasteurization came into being long before we suspected that heat could produce any serious changes in the various food factors, such as vitamins, proteins, and inorganic compounds, or in the physico-chemical nature of the components of a food mixture.

In 1912 Frohlich9 showed that milk heated at 98 c. for ten minutes loses its protective action against ginea pig scurvy, while heating at 70 C. for thirty minutes gives uncertain results. The thermolability of the antiscorbutic substance in milk has also been demonstrated by Hess,10 Hess and Fish11, Chick, Hume and Skeleton12, and Hart, Steenbock and Smith.13 The addition of antiscorbutic to the milk diet of the infant is an attempt to compensate for the loss in vitamin C through the application of heat.

Under the influence of heat the proteins of milk undergo modification. The production of hydrogen sulphide and of ammonia points to decomposition of these proteins. The whey proteins, albumin and globulin, suffer coagulation. When heated at 80 C. for fifteen minutes, caseinogen is so modified that the time required for coagulation by rennin is prolonged. According to Soldner,14 the calcium salts are altered by heat to the extent that they become unsuitable for rennet coagulation and for absorption. Rona and Michaelis15 observed in 1909 that colloidal ferric hydroxide splits up the casein-calcium compound of milk.

When calcium is determined quantitatively and recorded in terms of calcium oxide, precipitation by collateral ferric hydroxide results in the appearance of 70 to 80 per cent. of the calcium oxide in soluble form, most of the phosphorus calculated as phosphorus pentoxide being carried down by absorption. Magee and Harvey16 compared the amounts of calcium oxide found in solution after precipitation of protein from fresh and heated milk with colloidal ferric hydroxide.

In the case of whole raw milk, 85 per cent. was found in solution; in the case of whole milk heated for thirty minutes at 65, only 71 per cent. Magee and Harvey also observed that the percentage of loss by dialysis of calcium calculated as calcium oxide is greater for pasteurized milk and still greater for boiled milk. That there is a loss in the soluble calcium and also in the soluble phosphorus compounds of milk has also been reported by Bell17 and others. The extent of the loss depends upon the temperature to which the milk has been heated.

Victor Elvine