STRAMONIUM


Stramonium acts like other plants of the Solanum family in producing cerebral excitation, particularly delirium, which here assumes a peculiar form. Its scarlatina-like eruption is similar to Belladonna. Suppression of urine is one of the peculiarities to be noted; great sexual excitement; tendency to convulsions; fiery eruptions of the skin similar to Belladonna; dryness of the throat, with fear of water.


Common name : Thorn-apple; Devils apple; Jamestown weed; Mad apple; Stink-weed.

Synonym : Datura Stramonium; Datura lurida; Solanum maniacum.

Habitat : Grows everywhere.

Preparation :

ALLEN says that our tincture is made of the seeds of Datura Stramonium, BLACKWOOD mentions Mother tincture of the fresh herb in flower and fruit. The British Homoeo.

Pharmacopoeia adopts the entire herb.

The old school use the drug as a narcotic and antispasmodic, and especially do we find the dried leaves smoked as cigarettes for the relief of asthma.

Stramonium acts like other plants of the Solanum family in producing cerebral excitation, particularly delirium, which here assumes a peculiar form. Its scarlatina-like eruption is similar to Belladonna. Suppression of urine is one of the peculiarities to be noted; great sexual excitement; tendency to convulsions; fiery eruptions of the skin similar to Belladonna; dryness of the throat, with fear of water.

Therapeutic uses : Acute mania; Delirium tremens; apoplexy; catalepsy; epilepsy; erotomania; aphasia; hysteria; chorea; convulsions; hiccough; diaphragmitis; chordee; coxalgia; ecstasy; enuresis ; affections of the eyes; suppressed eruptions; scarlatina; measles; whooping cough; paralysis; hydrophobia; headache from sun; anasarca after scarlatina; locomotor ataxy; sunstroke; lochia, offensive; tremors; meningitis; tetanus; trismus; Typhus; Burns; etc.

Generalities:

SUPPRESSION OF ALL EXCRETIONS (Secale). Wildness of manners. Inarticulate cries. Lying on their backs; when lying upon stomach, boring head into pillows; prostrate and helpless. Relaxation of voluntary muscles. Sways to and fro like a drunken man. Falling over when sitting, especially towards right side, making a circular sweep. Threatens to fall on rising. Inability to perform co-ordinate movements. Loss of voluntary motion. Inability to take food, to see, hear, speak or feel.

TREMBLING OF WHOLE BODY (Arg. nit.; Gels.; Cimicif.; Merc.), with rigidity of trunk and limbs, constant moans, occasional shrieks, appeared as if terribly frightened; holding a candle before eyes caused convulsions of limbs.

CONSTANT RESTLESS MOVEMENTS (Hyosc.; Merc.; Rhus t.; Bell.), Subsultus tendinum (Hyosc). Chorea-like movements, and features continually changing, at times laughing, at times expressing astonishment, lips moved as if trying to speak, sometimes puckered as in whistling, mouth often opened and snapped together, tongue often run out rapidly and licked about cheeks, head thrown backward and forward spasmodic twisting of spine and whole body, limbs in constant motion (not jerking), anxiety and restlessness, rubbing nose and mouth, pulling at lips, groping about, fingering bedcovers, scratching face or throat, at times the arm suddenly sank down relaxed for a moment, whole body exhausted, then the spasm would begin anew (Merc).

Twitching; and inability to swallow or talk (Hyosc., Op.) CONVULSIONS: AT SIGHT OF A LIGHTED CANDLE, MIRROR, OR OF WATER; worse being touched or loudly spoken to, AND WHEN A CUP OF DRINK TOUCHED THE LIPS; worse arms, face and neck; beginning in face and extending to other parts; with blowing or hissing expirations; with shrieks and hoarseness, alternating with torpor; alternating with rage, during which he beat and bit those who attempted to hold him.

Opisthotonos. Tetanus, Hysterical symptoms. Cramps. Body bent backward as in opisthotonos, muscles of limbs very active, he grasped at his mouth and face, tried to get out of bed and made efforts to grasp small objects, but had no spasms.

Aura running swiftly from right heel to occiput, all along posterior right side. Hyperaesthesia to touch, every motion aggravated. RESTLESS; and calling FOR WATER, SWALLOWING DIFFICULT (Hyosc.). Great strength.

Weakness; in morning on waking, also went back to bed several times; when walking; from least exertion; desire to lie down. Sudden weakness, with violent beating of the heart. Diminution of sensorial power; loss of sensation (touch, taste, etc.). Collapse. Stiffness of whole body. Paralysis of various parts.

“Chorea, with peculiar fright of the drug, with constantly changing spasms; chorea, particularly of the muscles of the face, which assume all kinds of expressions (rarely for chorea, which persistently attacks certain muscles). Hysterical convulsions resulting from fright, especially from being frightened by animals.

HAHNEMANN calls attention to the fact that most of the affections to which Stramonium is homoeopathic are characterized by painlessness.

It is suited to ailments of young, plethoric persons (chorea, mania), especially of children (fever delirium); ailments due to shock; fright; sun; childbirth. Suppression.

Mind: DELIRIUM; NOISY; FRIGHTENED BY STRANGE OBJECTS THAT OBTRUDE UPON HIS FANCY; GAZE FIXED AND SHE TRIED TO REACH TOWARDS SOMETHING WHICH SHE SAW; under impression of danger; clinging to the person who held him in her lap. LOW MUTTERING, THEN SUDDEN AND FURIOUS SCREAMING, BITING, SCRATCHING, AND TEARING WITH HANDS AND KICKING.

PICKED THE BED-CLOTHES, saw bugs, etc; large dogs, cats and other horrible beasts seemed to grow out of the ground at his side and he sprang away from them in terror. HE SAW BLACK OBJECTS, spoke of black people and black clouds and grasped at the air; at first looked stupid and gave incoherent answers, afterwards looked like an idiot, then bit a mans hand, SOMETIMES CRIED OUT THAT SHE SAW CATS, DOGS AND RABBITS AT THE TOP, SIDES AND MIDDLE OF THE ROOM. Sees persons not present. SOLELY OCCUPIED WITH OBJECTS OF HIS FANCY.

SYMPTOMS RESEMBLING HYDROPHOBIA; RAGE ON ATTEMPTING TO ADMINISTER LIQUIDS, LIKE HYDROPHOBIA, SPASMS OF PHARYNX SO THAT ANYTHING TAKEN CHOKED HIM AND WAS REGURGITATED. AVERSION TO FLUIDS.

Paroxysms of laughter. Delirium alternating with insensibility, VOICE SQUEAKING; symptoms resembling delirium tremens, and struggling to get out of bed, rolling from side to side, unless supported she fell forward to the ground.

ALL MOTIONS HASTY and forcible, he is anxious if he cannot finish them at once. APPREHENSION. STARTING UP IN FRIGHT; SHUDDERING AND FRIGHT. Imagines that he is alone and is frightened. Sadness in evening in bed, with thoughts of death and violent weeping. Fear of sudden death.

Talking much, but speech difficult; continued incoherent talk. Disinclination for real work, memory lost.

Disposed to talk continually (Cic.; Lach.); incessant and incoherent talking and laughing; praying, beseeching, entreating; with suppressed menses.

“Raving, with attempts to escape; talking, laughing, or singing; especially with symptoms of terror, thinks he will be killed or that wild beasts are chasing him. Mania, wild delirium, with terrifying hallucinations. The child screams in fright, or an adult is horrified or loquacious, is particularly afraid of the dark. Hallucinations; he particularly imagines that he is surrounded by black insects or by small animals of black color. The loquacity of this drug may be compared with that of Hyosc., and Lach; Stramonium is persistent in being confined to one subject; he imagines he is talking with spirits or absent people.

Very frequently useful in delirium tremens, with visions of animals from which he attempts to escape. In delirium of fever, characterized by an abnormal sense of properties of his body, it is similar to Baptisia; the Stramonium patient is apt to imagine, that certain parts are of unnatural size, or that they are double. Hydrophobia; of all drugs known to us this seems most nearly a specific for this dreadful disease, and some cases, supposed to be genuine, have been cured.”.

The delirium of Stramonium is for the most part terrifying. Convulsions, with consciousness (Nux); renewed by sight of bright light, mirror or water (Bell.; Lyss.).

CLARKE says, “In a case of mine, Stram. relieved an extensive eczematous eruption which came on after a fright.”.

TESTE calls attention to the following forms of mania; Nymphomania of lying-in-women. Certain forms of religious monomania, exaggerated and ridiculous scruple of conscience. Fixed notion that some unpardonable sin has been committed (which the patient is nevertheless unable to remember); that he is possessed of the devil. Hallucination, which terrify the patient.

Fantastic sensation : Starts as if a shock of electricity has been passed through her body. As if objects were smaller than they really are. As if dizzy. As if nose were shifted. As if pins and needles were in forehead. As if bones were sawed through. As if he had no limbs. Cries as if from sight of hideous objects. As if very tall. As if navel were to be torn out. As if very tall. As if navel were to be torn out. As if parts of limbs were completely separated from body. As if boiling water in throat. As if cold water were poured down back.

DESIRES LIGHT AND COMPANY; cannot bear to be alone; worse in dark and solitary place; cannot walk in a dark room.

Desire to escape, in delirium (Bell.; Bry.; Op.; Rhus.).

Head :

Swelling and internal fullness as if it would burst. Frequently raises head from the pillow; head moved to and fro. Spasm to either side after a swoon, with redness of face. Aching: in evening; deep in brain, worse over eyes, with heaviness; with vertigo and heaviness of head, alternating with lightness and disposition to faint. Deep-seated throbbing. Fullness RUSH OF BLOOD. Confusion. Stupid feeling. Apoplexy, Drunkenness; in morning; and heavy feeling in body. Head feels as if scattered about (Bapt.).

Vertigo :

Every morning after rising, with want of thought, weakness of memory and vision as through a gauze. Vertigo on raising head from pillow; on sitting and standing in a room, with nausea; with flickering before eyes; with staggering as if he would fall forward and to the left. “Vertigo when walking in the dark.”.

Forehead :

Wrinkled. Tingling as if pins and needles were in it. Pain in right side. Throbbing in forehead and in vertex and eyeballs. Vertex : Pressure every day, late in afternoon and evening, worse right side. Pain in right side of occiput, occasionally throbbing; also in left side.

“It has been prescribed for congestive headache, with fear of going mad from the violent pain. Boring frontal headache, preceded by obscure vision; it has been noticed that when the sight of one eye is blurred the pain is on the opposite side of the head. Hydrocephalus. Cerebro-spinal meningitis.” It causes more functional excitement of the brain, but never approaches the true inflammatory condition of Bellad.

Eye :

STARING; WILD, alternating with unsteadiness, Eyes PROMINENT; AND WIDE OPEN, PUPILS DILATED, INSENSIBLE, WITH INJECTED CONJUNCTIVA, AS IF VESSELS WERE FILLED WITH DIRTY FLUID (Bell.; Hyosc.). Eyes glistening; and restless, wide open, staring, with a peculiar intoxicated look. Redness. Inflammation, worse right eye, with lachrymation. Rolling.

Cornea bright red. Conjunctiva injected; and bluish. Lids, closed and swollen; half closed and eyes listless. Swollen and inflamed. Drooping, as from cramp of orbicularis. Agglutination at night. Paralysis of lids.

VISION :

COMPLAINED THAT IT WAS DARK AND CALLED FOR A LIGHT. Lost. Dim; in afternoon when reading print. Amblyopia. Presbyopia. Impaired. Weak, with pressure in eyes. Things appear smaller and at a greater distance, as if dazzled. All things appear oblique. Things look blue and smoky, and at times he can see only half an object, dazzled by rays of sun. Objects appear multiplied. Diversified and variously colored. “Strabismus.”.

Ear :

Shooting. Tearing in right, with shooting through forehead and vertex. Pain in left, pressing down to cheek. Deafness. Hallucination of hearing. Hearing obtuse at times; very acute. Ringing in left. Roaring.

Nose :

Stopped; feels stooped, but can get air enough through it. Dryness; and redness, with loss of smell. Itching. Sneezing, from dryness of nostrils. Coryza, from 10 A.M. till noon, nostrils stuffed, but not much flow. Blowing out offensive yellow mucus, becoming fluent. Black haemorrhage, (Arn.; Crocus; Crot. h.; Hamam.; Lach.; Thlaspi.; Trill.) then warm sweat and general relief.

Face :

REDNESS : of cheeks; of forehead; and of eyes; with heat; and swelling. Face swollen and hot. EXPRESSION OF TERROR (Atropine). Anxious (Sec. c.) Wild (Bell) Vacant, bewildered. Idiotic. Besotted appearance. Drawn. Sunken. Risus sardonicus. Distorted as by anxiety, with furrowed and wrinkled forehead. JAWS : hanging down; clenched; tetanic spasms. Lips and teeth separated. Swelling of lower lip; deep redness; bright red (afterwards almost black), feeling stiff, hard and trembling. Lips stick together and have a yellow streak along their red part. Dry and sticky; sore, parched, chapped, then peeling.

“Neuralgia of the face, with twitches, delirium. etc.”.

Mouth :

Teeth grinding; throbbing in lower teeth, in lower left molars and in submaxillary glands of same side; as if some teeth would fall out. Chewing motion of mouth.

TONGUE:

Swollen and stiff. Protruded, and swollen; and flabby. Red on edges and thin, but white in centre. Whitish, with red dots, and tip redder than usual. Papillae enlarged and projecting through white fur. Furred; white, with dryness, burning and scraping in mouth and fauces; yellowish with disgusting bitter taste. Felt blistered. Boys scratch them with their finger-nails. Dryness on tongue, and on palate; redness and white colour. Paralyzed and trembled if she put it out.

SPEECH DIFFICULT AND UNINTELLIGIBLE (Merc.); faltering; indistinct. STAMMERING. Foaming; thick; bloody, Drooling (Merc.). DRIBBLING OF GLAIRY SALIVA (Merc.). Salivation. Bitter taste to food.

Taste :

Pasty; like sand to food. Food balls up in oesophagus and threatens to suffocate her. Water tastes like leather. Taste like sulphur to eggs.

Throat :

Externally swollen as in mumps. Grasping at throat. SPASM ON ATTEMPTING TO SWALLOW, AS IN HYDROPHOBIA. CONSTRICTION OF THE MUSCLES ON ATTEMPTING TO SWALLOW. Choking. SPASMODIC CONSTRICTION, WITH PARALYSIS.

DRYNESS OF FAUCES, WITH REDNESS and DIFFICULT SWALLOWING, NOT AMELIORATED BY WATER; worse swallowing saliva. Dryness of fauces, but he would not swallow when water was forced into his mouth. Paralysis of pharynx.

Oesophagus :

Seems drawn together. Constriction and spasm (Merc.). SWALLOWING DIFFICULT, particularly of water. Swallowed drink hastily (Merc.).

Stomach :

Hunger, with tearing in abdomen, but inability to take food. Appetite increased. Appetite poor at breakfast; diminished; lost, with oppression at pit of stomach. Great desire for acids (Verat. a.). THIRST, not ameliorated by water. Thirst for sour drinks; for lemonade. Eructation : offensive bilious, in evening. Hiccough.

Nausea, with retching causing pain in stomach, and vomiting of whitish fluid; with discomfort in middle line of chest; with inability to vomit and then dizziness, faintness and difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Ineffectual retching.

Vomiting :

of mucus at night; of sour smelling mucus; bilious, after, least motion; of green bile; difficult, of food mixed with nearly black clotted blood, soon after eating and causing shooting at pit of the stomach, retching before and after the vomiting.

Tenderness of epigastric region. Sourness. Irritation. Anxiety in pit, with difficult breathing.

Abdomen :

distention, worse region of pit of stomach. Meteorism. Tympanitic; hard; tense. Rumbling and growling. Rolling in abdomen during micturition, with rigors. Gurgling. Emission of flatus. Spasmodic retraction.

Tearing, better after broth-like stools. Griping; with shooting and looseness. Sensitiveness. Sensation as if expanded to the extremest degree. Tearing as if umbilicus would be torn out, the pain then goes into the chest. Pain in hepatic region; during stool; in centre of hypogastrium.

Rectum and Anus :

Haemorrhoidal flux. Discharge of coagulated blood. Ineffectual desire.

“She seemed to have motion to stool and passed a living lumbricus teres, fourteen inches long, with a little water, but without faeces or relief of symptoms.”.

Stools :

“Diarrhoea during typhoid, black, putrid, with loquacious delirium, desire for light, fright, etc.”.

Constipation. Hard. Difficult, painful, the last part could not be evacuated by straining, but came easily after the straining ceased. STOOL AND URINE SUPPRESSION.

Diarrhoea :

with flatulence, borborygmus, and occasional sharp pains; with and followed by shooting downward in rectum; chocolate-brown. Watery; preceded by cramps in abdomen; frequent; brown; several times from 3 till 7 P.M.

“Black fluid. Putrid; cadaverous; painless. aggravated during typhoid fever; in child-bed. Before stool, writhing pain in abdomen. Amelioration after profuse perspiration.”–(BELL). This author further says that the stool of Stramonium is characteristic when the accompanying symptoms are present.

Urinary Organs :

“Suppression of urine, especially in typhoid.” Bladder empty. Paralysis of bladder. Retention of urine, with muscular paralysis. Micturition only after twelve hours. Micturition dribbling; by drops, urine warm and sensation as if a cylinder were pushed through urethra; after vinegar a thin stream and less frequent desire.

Micturition frequent at night; frequent by drops, the emission delayed for a minute before it came, though much was discharged in the forenoon. Micturition painful and urine alkaline. Micturition difficult and urine high-coloured. Urine dark and of strong odor. Urine thick and turbid.

Urine increased, and almost watery; and clear like spring water. “Violent thirst, with copious secretion of burning urine.”

–(JAHR).

Male Sexual Organs :

Constant uncovering (Hyosc.). Priapism. Testicles retracted, penis erect as in chordee. Scrotum oedematous. Energy lost. Excitement.

Female Sexual Organs:

Excitement, insatiable in women. “Nymphomania, either puerperal or menstrual, with great violence.” Menses increased and large clots. Menorrhagia, with drawing pains in abdomen, thighs and other limbs. Discharge of black blood from uterus.

“Dysmenorrhoea. Puerperal convulsions. Puerperal mania.” With suppressed menses she may be PRAYING, BESEECHING, ENTREATING. Disposed to talk continually (Cic.; Lach.). In metrorrhagia from retained placenta with characteristic delirium. Secale often acts promptly when Stram. has failed. (With fever and septic tendency, Pyrogen).

Respiratory Organs :

Suffocative spasms of glottis from vomiting. Pain in region of larynx. VOICE; hoarse croaking; high; SQUEAKING AND OUT OF TONE; SPEECH UNINTELLIGIBLE; lost; she could only utter a hoarse croaking sound that alternated with a sonorous, croupy, barking cough and inability to swallow from spasm of muscles of deglutition.

RESPIRATION :

Suffocation. Difficult and rapid. Stertorous; slow; deep; with blowing at each expiration. Oppressed, with tightness across chest; oppressed, with desire for the open air. Unable to inspire a sufficient amount. Gasps and sobs. Sighs. Moans.

COUGH :

Spasmodic, worse evening and next morning. Cough, with palpitation, anxiety, constriction of chest and convulsions. “Spasmodic suffocative cough, with jerking of the extremities. Asthma, desire for open air. Spasmodic asthma (very important) worse talking, hardly able to inspire. Most violent paroxysms of whooping cough, with suffocation almost convulsive, the child starts up in fright. Occasionally useful in pneumonia, with (the peculiar) delirium.”.

Chest :

Cutting in sternum in evening after lying down better emission of flatus, but returning. Tightness at night, obliging him to take frequent deep, forcible inspirations. Violent stricture across the chest. Oppressed breathing. “Spasms of the chest, particularly in hysteric females.”–(JAHR).

Heart :

Uneasiness in the region of heart, with faintness. Palpitation, in afternoon on slight exertion. Violent beating, waking from deep sleep. Feeble; intermittent.

Pulse :

Rapid, full and strong; soft and feeble. Febrile. Strong, tumultuous; and tremulous, unequal, sometimes intermittent. At times imperceptible.

Neck :

Swelling. Stiffness. “Drawing (rheumatic) pain, extending from the side of the neck into the limbs.”–(JAHR).

Back :

Spine sensitive, the slightest pressure caused outcries and ravings. Burning pain in the back and abdomen, excited by motion. Pain in back as if beaten, and in shoulder. Drawing pain in middle of spine; and opposite in posterior part of stomach. “Drawing pain in the small of the back.”–(JAHR). Rheumatic pains in lumbar region. Drawing pain in sacrum.

“Sometimes useful in early stages of locomotor ataxia.”.

Extremities:

Peculiar, almost convulsive motions in upper extremities, while the lower were nearly paralyzed. Motions, worse hands. Extremities thrown to and fro, with screams and cries. TREMBLING of hands and feet; as in chill, yet, heat of skin; worse hands, with movements, as if she were afraid of falling, body bent backward.

TWITCHING, OF TENDONS; OF HANDS AND FEET; alternating with opisthotonos. Convulsions, alternating with stiffness; the convulsions sometimes caused by external impressions, such as touching skin.

Immobility; a kind of catalepsy. Numbness of hands and feet. Paralysis.

Upper Extremities:

Trembling of arm when eating; choreic trembling. Sticking in forearm. with rheumatic constrictive pain in deltoid. Hands could not be closed to make fist. Finger-nails purple, limbs cold. Grasped a glass convulsively after drinking though she wished to set it down.

Lower Extremities:

Waking difficult; impossible. Stumbles against a door whenever he goes through it. Staggering; and falling to the right. Convulsive gait.

THIGH :

Redness and heat of right thigh, worse anterior part of thighs. Paroxysmal jerking and drawing upward and inward of anterior muscles. Drawing pain.

KNEES

gave way and feet staggered. Pain in right leg, worse patella. Feet and legs swollen, hard, skin tight. Feet weak. He cannot stand on his feet.

Skin :

Redness, first on upper part of body; in patches of irregular shape on face; worse face and trunk, with roughness; scarlet spots, SCARLATINOUS SKIN (Bell.). Skin pale and cold.

RED RASH; AS IN SCARLET FEVER, BUT MORE SHINING; better pressure, but returning immediately, on hands, arms, face, neck and back. SCARLET EFFLORESCENCE, brighter than in scarlatina. Spots like fleabites on arms. Vesications after the violent symptoms had subsided. Boil in groin. Formication. Itching, worse face.

“Erysipelas of the head and face. Occasionally called for during the cure of abscesses, especially of left hip; in this disease there may be most violent pain, which we do not often find in the Stram. patient. Scarlet fever, quite frequently indicated before the eruption appears, sometimes after wards, particularly in the malignant type. Suppressed eruptions, with delirium etc.”.

In suppressed eruption we must not forget that suppression of urine would be an important and additional indication for the remedy (Apis; Colch.; Phyto.).

Sleep :

Sleepiness, after excitement, with depression of pulse and prostration; then coma. Deep sleep, with snoring. Stupefied half slumber. Starting up in sleep. Dreams of different kinds.

Fever :

HEAT OF FACE. HEAT OF HEAD. Skin HOT, AND DRY, SCARLET COLOR. Dry heat, in remittent typhoid; on trunk, with sweat. It has less fever than Bell., but more than Hyosc. SWEAT : cold on whole body; on paralyzed limbs.

Modalities :.

Aggravation :

Looking at bright and shining objects; in the dark, and when alone; when attempting to swallow; after sleep; reflected light; mirror.

Amelioration :

From bright light; company; warmth.

Similar :

Agar.; Ars.; Bell.; Bry.; Hyosc.; Merc.; Sec. c.; Cham,; Ign.; Lyc.; Nux v.; Op.; Puls.; Sulph.; Verat. alb.

N O Solanaceae