Just as molecular water so also molecular oxygen is considered as food for the necessary physiologic functions of all higher organisms. As the lithosphere is controlled primarily through the oxygen affinity, so are also the vital processes through the union with oxygen (oxidation) with the organic substance. The gas exchange between oxygen and the end product of carbon compounds combustion, CO2, is sensitive in its great physiologic range only for mass differences of these two gases, but one does not tend to designate this as medicinal. In general, in depression of oxidation, there is no failure in oxygen supply but in the possibility of utilization of the oxygen available. Here again it is not possible to give oxygen a more active form than it has in the atmosphere, so only mass actions at unusual places (in a nascent state, for example, as peroxide H2O2) does it come into consideration. The use of oxidation mediation is more possible through oxygen deficiency (high altitudes.).


Hydrogen in molecular form has no place in the metabolism of higher organisms and a medicinal activity of this lightest gas is indeed hardly possible. Hydrogen only as an ion, that is, as a positive charged, dissociated atom, is active in the organism. Therein the relation to the other active constituent of water, to the OH, is always decisive. (The hydroxyl ion OH is to a certain extent and oxygen ion made univalent.) Preponderance of H plus (increased hydrogen ion concentration, pH greater than 7) signifies an acid reaction; preponderance of OH-, pH less than 7 (increased OH concentration) an alkaline reaction. Because the total ion concentration of neutral water in H plus and OH – ions equals 10 -14 so must there be, in a neutral reaction of water, solution of H plus equals OH – equals 10 -7. This relation is usually expressed by writing with the negative logarithm as pH, so that pH equals 7 means neutral reaction; a pH under 7, or a preponderance of OH- ions, an alkaline reaction. The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the concentration of the dissociated H plus ions (or OH -ions). The ratio of reaction equilibrium of free ions, by which the activity is determined, is a reversible one of a type which is generally understood by the mass action law of Guldburg and Waage. The acid-base regulation physiologically is held very constant through diverse regulation agents. The physiologic defense against an alteration of the optimal (H plus, OH -) ion concentration has such a range that a morbid disturbance in intermediary metabolism, through the introduction of acid or base in a normal way, is as good as impossible. Only when the metabolism is already disturbed toward the acidotic or alkalotic side when the regulation processes which otherwise function without symptoms are defective and produce morbid symptoms, is the situation given for the medicinal intervention into the acid-base balance.


The formation of acids is the normal result of the splitting processes, the dissimulation. The physiologic counterbalances for the anions developing are the cations, and indeed here the alkali cations, sodium and potassium, because of their great motility and capacity for exchange, are the most important. The use of ammonia, which arises from protein destruction, is actually a danger signal. The alkali reserve is chiefly formed through the alkaline reacting carbonates and phosphates of the alkalies. The alkali salts of weak acids are suitably formed, and an excess of active H plus ions avoided and temporarily (until acid exertion can occur) made latent. If one takes CO2 and its sodium salt NaHCO3 as an example, so will the equilibrium

CO2 at the instant of appearance of a strong Na.HCO3 acid, that is, numerous free H ions, shift in favor of CO2, the alkaline reserve, NaCHO3 diminishing. But since the rush of H plus is collected as a weak acid whose dissociation of H ions is very slight, so in the medium, as perhaps the blood serum, the acid- base balance remains constant. Only the relation of the weak acid to its alkaline salt shifts. And this ratio is a reversible balance which after the elimination of CO2 through expiration again shifts in favor of the alkaline salt. This equalization function in the acid-base regulation is called buffering. the possibility of buffering is moreover given through the alkali reserve. In the blood it can be determined through the amount of CO2 which will be bound at a definite partial pressure through the buffering alkali of the blood serum.

Apart from the final balance through the excretion of anions or cations, the intermediate acid-base equilibrium is also ensured through a series of other processes. So almost all proteins are at the same time weak bases and weak acids, so-called ampholytes. They are also suitable for temporarily lessening an excess of active H plus or OH- ions through weak dissociation.

So an optimal hydrogen ion concentration (pH) in the fluids and tissues will be maintained with great tenacity. it is moreover a basic condition for the normal course of vitally important processes. The great variations of food in acid-or base-builders is hardly able to disturb this equilibrium, at most to favorably influence an already disturbed one. An excess of acid in intermediary metabolism, acidosis, develops through incomplete oxidation and therefore incomplete excretion of acid end- product. In such cases the neutralization through strong alkali is naturally excluded, because the introduction of such OH – carriers in the amounts require must act disturbing on the cells and tissues. And the introduction of salts, which induce an alkaline reaction, as sodium carbonate, in such cases, can hardly give more than a transient neutralization; a chemical mass action which attacks the end-products of a metabolic disturbance, which is able to stimulate the intrinsic properties of the organism to conquer the disturbance, does not occur in any cases. It is the same chemical mass equalization procedure which brings temporary alleviation in an excess or deficiency of acid in the stomach through the corresponding amounts of alkaline- reacting salt or acid but which better induces an impairment of the selfregulation of the organism.

Of the destructive actions of strong bases or acids, we need not speak here. The solution of skin and mucous membranes through alkalies, the corrosion through acids, shows us only the impossibility of supporting life through marked increase of the OH or H ion concentration. But if we turn to bases and acids in a dilute state as stimulation agents, as drugs, then we must be clear that the action of the cations (bases) or anions (with acids) used, is shaped so much more acutely and transiently, the freer the OH -or the H plus ions are. Their great capacity for reaction is associated with the extraordinary speed of wandering. The strong alkalies, the OH compounds of the organic alkalies and earthy alkalies, can therefore practically not be used as drugs since their action is too brief and crude. The cations can have value if they are employed, for example, the carbonates. The strong acids, as hydrochloric, sulphuric acid, are likewise rarely used drugs of acute effects. With nitric acid and phosphoric acid the dissociation relations are somewhat more complicated, and a slower and more prolonged action is made possible. The similarity in the drug action of the alkali- forming cations on the one side and the acid forming anions on the other side, and the contrast between these cation and anion actions in the organism in general, will be mentioned later in the summary.

The role of H and OH ions in normal and sick organisms, and the understanding of the remaining anion and cation actions, is so important that they must be studied more closely, even if the ions themselves as constituents of medicinal substances have only a slight significance.


The third fundamental element, carbon, C, is the characteristic carrier of organic life. this is certainly connected with the central position of the element in the periodic system. Next, carbon as the lightest and therefore the handiest element of the amphoteric group IV, is also adapted for entering into combination with H and O beside one another and for extraordinarily changing relationships and forms. To this is added the capacity of combining with itself in chains and rings (homeopolar binding) which carbon possesses to a greater degree than any other element. It owes this also to its central position in the periodic system.

In silicium and the lightest members of the neighboring Groups III and V (boron and nitrogen), the capacity for homeopolar binding is much less. Moreover even in silicium there predominates a one-sided affinity, namely, for oxygen. Another advantage which carbon posses, which is not present in slicium, is that the simplest natural combinations of the oxidation end- products, CO2 and the last step in reduction, CH4, are volatile. So in spite of all diversity and convertibility of the innumerable intermediate forms, still an easy removal of the used material is made possible.

Otto Leeser
Otto Leeser 1888 – 1964 MD, PHd was a German Jewish homeopath who had to leave Germany due to Nazi persecution during World War II, and he escaped to England via Holland.
Leeser, a Consultant Physician at the Stuttgart Homeopathic Hospital and a member of the German Central Society of Homeopathic Physicians, fled Germany in 1933 after being expelled by the German Medical Association. In England Otto Leeser joined the staff of the Royal London Homeopathic Hospital. He returned to Germany in the 1950s to run the Robert Bosch Homeopathic Hospital in Stuttgart, but died shortly after.
Otto Leeser wrote Textbook of Homeopathic Materia Medica, Leesers Lehrbuch der Homöopathie, Actionsand Medicinal use of Snake Venoms, Solanaceae, The Contribution of Homeopathy to the Development of Medicine, Homeopathy and chemotherapy, and many articles submitted to The British Homeopathic Journal,