Sycosis


Thuja can cause the disappearance of the dermal manifestations of this Miasm Sycosis. It is also a remedy of acute and chronic gonorrhoea. But Hahnemann did not consider that all gonorrhoeas are caused by sycosis….


Introduction: Sycosis, its history:

Hahnemann considered sycosis as the diathesis which endangers the least the chronic diseases. Its consequences are seen from time to time. When the local symptoms of sycosis, i.e., the growth on the genital organs are removed by cauterisation or by surgical means, sycosis manifests itself in another more dangerous manner.

His two other miasms are Psora and Syphilis. The problem of syphilis can be solved easily because the cause is known. The problem of Psora has somewhat been solved by the French Homoeopaths specially by Dr. A. Nebel. But there is still doubt as regards the real meaning of Psora. But it is a fact that according to the expression of Kent “Urchadigung”, i.e., the original sin of man. Psora may be considered as the miasm of the human civilisation. And it will go on making man allergic to the seven-eighth of diseases existing in the human kind. Unknown diseases will appear more and more on the human body, as man will become more and more civilised in the modern sense of the term and as man will become more and more affected in his mental and nervous sphere.

His two other miasms are Psora and Syphilis. These three miasms are of unequal importance because Psora alone is responsible for 7/8th of human diseases. But it will be wrong to believe that each of these miasms alone is responsible for some pathological phenomena in a particular individual. They, on the contrary intricate themselves in many cases of which the gravity is due to Psora. According to Hahnemann sycosis can be easily cured by alternate doses of Thuja and Nitric acid, if it is not complicated with Psora.

According to Dr. Martiny tuberculosis is not in association with sycosis. But this point is refuted by Dr. Bernard.

As regards sycosis Jahr says that “we do not dare, neither can we affirm, the existence of that disease as Sui generis.”

The first students of Hahnemann had shown exactly the clinical indications of Thuja and other anti-sycotic remedies. Thus the disciples of Hahnemann widened the field of sycosis. But the reality of sycosis was still doubted by persons like Jahr and others.

To Hahnemann sycosis and syphilis are venereal diseases. To him syphilis is a disease of chancres and sycosis is a disease of “Figs” from the Greek Sycon and by extension fig-like growth.

Celsa, in the antiquity, described the sycosis of Homoeopaths as ” a particular form of outward symptoms, which one may call an acute form.”

Petroz writes in the Journal, de la Societe Gallicane, 1851, pg.361″. There is an ulcer which the Greeks called sycosis because of its likeness to fig: it is a growth on the skin and its generic character is the character of the disease itself. There are two kinds of growth. The first is a hard and round ulcer, the second is humid with unequal borders. The hard one oozes a kind of sticky secretion while the humid one oozes more abundant foetid secretion. The one or the other attack the hairy parts of the genital organ. The callous and round ulcers attack particularly the beard and the humid one the tegument.”

Other descriptions of sycosis are found in Paul d’Egina, Actinuz and Galen. But Teste wrote in 1853 that the sycosis of the latter writers are not the same as that of Celsa. The sycosis of the latter writers being the tumours on the eyelids. Finally other writes of the antiquity gave the name fig to indurated tumours, pain less or scirrhus, etc…

In 1847 Rapou said that the majority of Italian doctors did not consider sycosis as different from syphilis. Almost all the German doctors still believe that syphilis and sycosis are same.

Teste in France considered sycosis as an “Ingenious hypothesis of Hahnemann”. Tests considered it as non-venereal disease, although it may be transmitted by coition and may cause the appearance of symptoms of the genital organs.

At that time gonorrhoea was considered as the cause of this diathesis.

Hahnemann considered sycosis as a venereal disease only because the seat of this disease is on the genital organs. But the very discovery of Thuja is perhaps the sure indication that sycosis is not a venereal disease.

Finally, as many of the sycotic symptoms are related to a gonorrhoeal discharge, specially when this discharge is suddenly stopped by treatment or because of any other reason. Rapou clearly indicates the last fact when citing Ritter(Histoire de la doctrine-Medical homoeopathique, 1847, p.373).

Thuja can cause the disappearance of the dermal manifestations of this “Miasm”. It is also a remedy of acute and chronic gonorrhoea. But Hahnemann did not consider that all gonorrhoeas are caused by sycosis.

“Ordinarily, in this kind of gonorrhoea, the discharge is, from the beginning, somewhat like thick pus. The emission of urine causes little pain, but the body of the penis is swollen and full of hard nodules. There are glandular nodosities on the back of that organ, and it is very painful to touch”.

Hahnemann also says that the miasm of other Gonorrhoea, seem not to penetrate the whole organism. They are only localised on the genital organs.

To Hahnemann, as we have already said, syphilis and sycosis were two distinct diseases. After the researches of Fournier on Syphilis the idea that syphilis and sycosis are the same disease was completely abandoned.

Towards the end of the 19th century the works of J.Compton- Burnett considerably widened the field of sycosis. He showed its relation to the intempestive vaccinations, specially the vaccinations that do not take up.

The vaccine is an infections disease which causes immunisation when inoculated in man. It protects him from smallpox.

The pathogenous agent of the vaccine does not reside in the liquid part of the lymph, but in the granulations which are found suspended in the lymph.

According to the allopaths, vaccines that do not take up, is of no consequence but such is not the opinion of homoeopaths.

Dr.J.Compton-Burnett has described under the name of vaccinosis a group of pathological troubles that are seen in the cases where the vaccines did not take up.

Why does the vaccine not take up? The officials think it is because the person vaccinated is immunised against small-pox. But according to Burnett and his followers the person is intoxicated by the vaccine virus, but he does not react, the organism does not disburden itself of the vaccine virus by outward manifestations. As a result a chronic stage comes into being.

The works of Burnett on “Vaccinosis” appeared in the year 1892. The question of vaccinosia is at present undisputed.

The ideas of Burnett were amply confirmed later on and it is now said that not only vaccinations but also the use of serums are the causes of sycotic diathesis.

Then comes Grauvogle with his three biochemic constitutions. He wished to renew the ideas of Hahnemann about Psora, Sycosis and Syphilis, with Carbonitrogenoid, Hydrogenoid and Oxygenoid constitutions. His idea were remodelled by Dr. Nebel and his group. They do not consider the constitutions of Grauvogle similar to the three diathesis of Hahnemann. They say that the biochemic constitutions are favourable grounds of the three miasms of Hahnemann.

Finally Dr. A. Nebel by his marvellous description of the Thuja type, made an important contribution to the problem of sycosis. He has moreover shown the relation of sycosis with psora.

In the article of Dr. M. Martiny “On Biological value of sycosis”, you will find that the persons having hydrogenoid constitution are predisposed to sycosis, and have a natural tendency to have atony of their reticulo-endothelial system. According to him the lethargy of the reticulo-endothelial system is characterised by slow and torpid reactions of the local defense with dragging suppurations.

Dr. Bernard in his treaties on sycosis has acknowledged the relation of sycosis with the reticulo-endothelial system. He calls it chronic reticulo-endotheliosis or premature old age of the system. According to him Tuberculin plays an important part in the formulation of this disease. According to him the hereditary “Carbonic constitution” is a hereditary sycosis of tuberculous origin and that the different forms of arthritic manifestations are to be related to sycosis. He contents that everything inter-penetrates the organisms and there really does not exist any partition between them.

Thus the notion of sycosis is much more widened at present than it was at the time of Hahnemann. Specially, the discovery that as a result of the weakness and torpidity of Reticulo-endothelial system, a sycotic condition is established, will, still widen the field of sycosis in the future.

Furthermore, it is now established that as a result of sudden suppression of not only gonorrhoeal discharge, but also of my kind of discharge such as leucorrhoea or discharge due to rhinitis, after medication or cauterisation, can cause a sycotic state of the human organism.

In the word we may say that sycotic diseases have a torpid nature, they develop slowly and when they develop drags on for a long time. The character of psoric diseases is exactly the opposite. In psoric diseases the organism has an explosive reaction.

Thuja always remains the ground remedy of sycosis when it is not complicated with other miasms. At present Medorrhinum is added to it. Teste makes a very interesting suggestion on Castoreum. He says that the castor of America lives on Thuja leaves. Therefore, Castoreum coming from America may have an action different to that of the Castoreum of other countries.

Biological Value of Sycosis:

Two nosologic entities, the sycosis and the Psora, considered by the Homoeopathic schools and brought to the rank of a diathesic disease, the sycosis is that which modifies the most the biological personality of some individuals.

According to a biologist, sycosis should be studied as a particular trouble of the biological personality under the influence of the attacks of microbes or toxins, continued or alternated. The recent studies of Charles Nicolle explains the apparent negative reaction of sycosis. The aim of this article is to show the organic modifications.

Among the allopaths to whom sycosis is unknown, the doctor and biologist who have felt well the real entity of that affection isolated by the latent of Hahnemann, is without knowing it –Prof. Mauriac. For this reason and in spite of his attacks, we may believe it a priori favourable to Homoeopathy.

P. Mauriac had in case the great advantage of being useful to the doctrine while judging with severity an anticlinical book of a pseudo-chief of School. The latter inspite of his didactic qualities, has never been able to show with some possibilities, the limits of the method.

I have the honour to cite herein extenso and integrally P. Mauriac. “The influences of all disease from which we suffer accumulate. It is true and one may say that it is we who should wipe them out, and degrade them by appropriate treatment. But finally we substitute the morbid element by therapeutic element: If in a syphilitic whom we cram with Mercury and Arsenic and thus efface the stamp of the treponema, we impregnate his organism by toxins that certainly modifies his Physico-chemical constitution. This is also the result of all medications and vaccinations in particular. A vaccine is a modified disease, and its usefulness is the best proof that it modifies our personality: We only see its immediate results and which is limited face to face with the susceptibility to small pox, of typhoid fever, etc. But we do not know the distant effects, we do not know what repercussions we may have after a long time on the physico-chemistry of a living body. All the forced vaccination, all sorts of serotherapies, no doubt modify the ability of the biological personality. And if we can not say what would be their effects on the human race, we may at least affirm that the new specifics of therapeutic origin modify the individual personality and perhaps the human biology. And to those who will remain sceptics on the persistence of such influence, let us tell them once more than cm3 of serum injected subcutaneously is enough to mark the individual and to make him sensitive to a second injection given 10 years afterwards. By this example of anaphylaxis yet us try to judge what accumulations of specific acquired, builds up our actual personality.”

The influence of the milieu have always the tendency to integrate themselves in the organic specificity of the individual, more or less modifying it. Progressively when this assimilation will not be effected, there will born a new vibratory disposition, moving from adaptation to intolerance.

The biological personality of a sycotic is characterised by a physio-pathological syndrome which seems to be consequence of continued torpid state. That state will manifest itself by some constructive reactions in stages and in time. On the level or tissues it will be the hyperplastic syndrome with growing tumours, benign of malignant. It we refer to our works done in collaboration with Charles Mondaine on cancer, we will find some reasons of some humoral modifications of the equilibrium opening the door to the anarchic exaggeration of hyperplastic processus. This processus instead of being static may be fluent; then there is chronic catarrh of the mucosa. The emunctories help but the secretions have not the exploding character that are found on a Psoric ground, the allergic affections which are so frequent and violent in tuberculinics.

From the physio-morphological point of view the persons who have a tendency to arrive at a sycotic state will be hydrogenoid type, and atoni-plastic of Dr. Allendy, the asthenic short-limbed of Pende. These persons have a natural tendency to have atony of their reticulo-endothelial system. It is not uninteresting for understanding well sycosis, to know the scope of this system.

The reticulo-endothelial system, which retains the voluminous molecules of chemical colorings, apparently behave like the membrane cells of which the networks are larger than those of the other cells. The functional importance of the sponge system seems primordial in the production of antibodies. It represents active participation of the organism in the defense mechanism against infection.

Its morphological delimitation was done experimentally. Ribbert has shown that if animals are injected with lithinised carmine, the grains of the colourings, instead of being immediately eliminated by emunctories are electively lodged for some time by a series of cell, set up a function of special defense in the organism. L. Aschoff has grouped and morphologically defined the reticulo-endothelial system which comprises:

(a) The reticular cells of the splenic pulp, of follicles and of lymphatic chords, of ganglions and other lymphoid tissues.

(b) Then endothelial cells of sinuses and lymphatic glands of the venous sinuses of the spleen, hepatic capillaries (Kupfer’s cells), capillaries of bone marrows, of cortico-suprarenal (Thuja) and of the hypophyses.

(c) The histocytes or mobile cells of conjunctive tissues, embryonary cells of the skin (Thuja).

(d) The spherocytes and the monocytes, the derivatives of the preceding cells.

What is true for the colourings, is also true for the antigens with the reserve that when it is the question of early toxins, the latter having moreover a special tropism for some visceral and nerve cells. This antigenic capacity is still revealed but in a reduced form in the fibrocytes and in endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels, in the interstitial elements of cells, genital glands and their annexes (Thuja). In the blood as shown by Kioyono by supravital colourings by toludine blue. It is only the big mononuclear macrophages, on the function of which Metchnikoff had clear signs and the transitional forms of Ehrlich that behave like some reticulo-endothelial tissues. And as it was shown by the researches of Schilling and Ferrata, they themselves derive some monocytes having their origin in the reticulo-endothelial. The functional vasculation of Silica perhaps directs this mechanism. From this system, scattered in the organism, but autonomous in its function and from its mesenchymatous origin, we may have the idea that the toxin depolymerised and which penetrated the interior of the cells, is thrown in the humor being imbibed by globulins or by a proteino- lipoidic mixture. Thus the specific humoral antibody, antitoxin or the evidence is constituted.

The reaction of sycotic is slow and massive; it is like that of the patient of Thuja, whose acute is Silicea. They are atonics whose reticulo-endothelial system has become weak.

The exuberant form of sycosis is seen in the chronic state of gonorrhoea of which we know the symptoms of Thuja: the tropism of the reticulo-endothelial system, chronic affections with hyperkeratosis, unending secretions of mucosa and articulo- neurotic phenomena.

Grauvogle says that gonorrhoeal poison causes in the organism some special damages in the hydrogenoids. Today we may call it “Atony of the reticulo-endothelial system”. The old observation fits in the new biological observation. As is told by Lathoud “when someone has this constitution, his ground is marvelously suitable for the gonorrhoeal infection and once he contacts this infection, he is more prone to develop sycotic condition than any one else.”

Besides in such hydrogenoid subjects, the sycosis will have particularly devastating effect. For them Jenerian vaccination is very dangerous and may have very deep traces against which Thuja may be placed by the side of Silicea and Kali muriaticum. When one finds an individual suffering from remote effects of vaccination, one may say that the subject is of hydrogenoid constitution.

Kent writes “Thuja is an extremely powerful remedy to fight against the bad consequences of vaccination, of small-pox or whatever intoxication of animal origin, such as the consequences of serpent bite.”

In conclusion we should say if the sycosis has not yet been completely explained in the totality of its biological mechanism many important facts have already been known:

1. The sycosis is not a point of view but an organised diathesis, brought out of the chaos of clinical observation by the talent of Hahnemann.

2. It is characterised by an attack of the weak reticulo- endothelial having bad reaction against chronic infections in hydrogenoid patients whose water metabolism is perhaps under the influence of the want of heavy waters. The lethargy of reticulo- endothelial system is characterised by slow torpid reaction of the local defense with vegetability of tissues and dragging suppurations.

3. Really speaking there is no allergic phenomena like that of secondary antigens. The tuberculin does not play any part in sycosis, neither any microbian affection of that group. Malaria may be considered as a cause when the patient does not react and when his spleen, the most important element of reticulo- endothelial system has become weak.

4. The works on the water metabolism, of lipoids of cholesterol may bring valuable biological help to build up the physiopathological foundation of sycosis.

Mauritius Fortier-Bernoville
Mauritius (Maurice) Fortier Bernoville 1896 – 1939 MD was a French orthodox physician who converted to homeopathy to become the Chief editor of L’Homeopathie Moderne (founded in 1932; ceased publication in 1940), one of the founders of the Laboratoire Homeopathiques Modernes, and the founder of the Institut National Homeopathique Francais.

Bernoville was a major lecturer in homeopathy, and he was active in Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis, and a founder of the le Syndicat national des médecins homœopathes français in 1932, and a member of the French Society of Homeopathy, and the Society of Homeopathy in the Rhone.

Fortier-Bernoville wrote several books, including Une etude sur Phosphorus (1930), L'Homoeopathie en Medecine Infantile (1931), his best known Comment guerir par l'Homoeopathie (1929, 1937), and an interesting work on iridology, Introduction a l'etude de l'Iridologie (1932).

With Louis-Alcime Rousseau, he wrote several booklets, including Diseases of Respiratory and Digestive Systems of Children, Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Rheumatism, treatment of hay fever (1929), The importance of chemistry and toxicology in the indications of Phosphorus (1931), and Homeopathic Medicine for Children (1931). He also wrote several short pamphlets, including What We Must Not Do in Homoeopathy, which discusses the logistics of drainage and how to avoid aggravations.

He was an opponent of Kentian homeopathy and a proponent of drainage and artificial phylectenular autotherapy as well.