On page 79 he says about the “increased power” of highly diluted medicines:
We cannot blame Hahnemann for desiring that by “potency” we should at the same time understand a kind of development of power or dynamisation. Many observations show that dilution of substance which has been carried very far affords room for new natural phenomena, for instance, the attenuation of gas in Geisler’s cylinders which leads to the known acceptance of a new condition of aggregation in matter, according to Crookes, who can form a conception of the possibility of a considerable increase of certain developed powers in highly attenuated matter, by assuming an unusual distance between the molecules which renders possible new mode of motion in the molecular movement. As regards the point of view of the efficacy of medicine, there is no need here for a specially increased dynamisation of matter, rather is it necessary to consider that the essential in the effect of the medicines is based upon retaining the definite affinity which is already the property of crude matter. This retention of all signs of individuality in their relation to the organic affinity is the basis of every consideration of natural laws in the action of homoeopathic remedies; in this respect highly diluted substances must have remained unaltered; an increased dynamisation, therefore, is hardly desirable, yet we may perhaps say that homoeopathic medicine will touch the organic parts with the same affinities as the crude substances but much more promptly so that although remaining the same electively, yet actively it possesses increased capacities or in other words: the same chemically, yet physically changed.
In another passage (page 98) he clothes his summary judgment of Hahnemann’s reform in medical prescriptions with the words of Dr. Ameke:
No book of history records, no work demonstrates, that any other physician has ever searched with such keen diligence to set right the theory of dosage as we find in this keen observer and indefatigable thinker, Hahnemann.
Dr. Stauffer writes in “Handbuch der Homoopathischen Heillehre,” of Kroner-Gisevius, section “Theory of Dosage,” Vol.II, page 200.
An abrupt denial (of the high potencies-R.H.) leads to nothing: he who limits himself to that commits a similar error as the old school medicine committed in respect to homoeopathy. Denial excludes every advance of knowledge. And yet to remain satisfied with a certain knowledge is equally objectionable. Therefore we cannot agree with Bahr, when he thinks that we should not trouble to make high potencies as the thirtieth potency is quite sufficient, and when he advises us not to use high potencies. We cannot and we must not agree with this opinion without further investigation, but here we must allow experience to judge, and place experiment above theory. For years I have treated asthma with Arsenic in low potencies when that remedy was indicated, but I must confess with unsatisfying results; I then tried the thirtieth potency and to my great astonishment the higher dilution achieved a striking result in the same patient. And again later, a patient came to me suffering from Bronchial asthma and the thirtieth potency of Arsenicum had only a transitory effect; I thought with Hering “ever higher” and gave Arsen. 200 and obtained a cure. Since then this high potency has given me the best services in many cases of asthma; I do not, however, intend to assert that it is a specific.
And on page 202:
The assertion that with the higher attenuation the effect of the medicine is increased because the strength of the medicine is potentised must be rejected. A medicine does not become weaker or stronger by dilution, it is merely unfolded and made finer in its specification. The higher the dilution the more clearly appear, in many remedies, the characteristics symptoms. It is true that the dose of medicine must stand in definite relationship to the individual and to the disease, if it is to develop its highest power. We can therefore establish the axiom: the Simillimum demands the smallest doses. Here also the Law of economy holds good as everywhere else in Nature. Of all helpful doses the smallest is always the best (Dahlke). Therefore the more certain we are of having found the right remedy the higher we can go with the dilution. But where the boundary lies in each individual case, that we must all learn from experience.
THE EFFECT OF HIGHLY DILUTED SUBSTANCES IN THE LIGHT OF MODERN INVESTIGATION.
During recent years a vast amount of scientifically sound proof has been produced in favour of the efficacy of the smallest amount of substances. In the German “Homoeopathic Periodical” (“Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Homoeopathie”) of 1922, Nos. 2 and 3, Dr. Meng of Stuttgart relates:
We know that the chemical combination and division of atoms is accompanied by electrical phenomena. Their carriers, the electrons, are two thousand times lighter than the lightest chemical atom; they are planets which revolve continuously around the sun, the atom nucleus, in established and calculable orbits. By means of the Quanten theory of Planck the atomical spectra have been investigated. In every atom of the ninety-two different chemical elements there are electrons of the same kind; the qualitative difference of the elements would, therefore only be found in the difference of the nuclei, their suns, which as regards mass and charge are different. The nucleus is positive and the electrons negative. The times of the alchemists are once more appearing since it has become possible to observe the disintegration of radium in two other gaseous elements (helium and radium emanations), since we know that helium and lead are derived from radium. Let us consider the development of a science which made it possible to prove that, for instance, the alpha rays are helium atoms which pass through their orbit at the rate of 20,000 km. a second.
Many conclusions can be drawn from recent investigations regarding the effect of potentised homoeopathic medicines. Of course he who recognises for practical use at the bedside only those dilutions for which chemistry or meta-chemistry can give a satisfactory explanation of their activity, will constantly stumble. Homoeopathic theorists would advise him not to exceed the twenty-second potency with most substances-the number depends upon the molecular weight of the individual substances. What seems more to the point to me is the recognition of the importance of the infinitesimally small as a whole, and of the primordial structure of matter through the most delicate systems of energy.
Von Driesch has thrown new light upon an idea of Ottmar Rosenbach, which he has repeatedly emphasised, concerning the transformation of cosmic currents of energy in the centres of energy of the human organism; of these he says: “the organisms are transformers of the finest currents of energy originating from the cosmos.” These ideas in their relation to therapeutics are to be found in the “Problem of therapeutics, Introduction to Homoeopathy” (Ostwald’s Annal. der Natur philosophie) by Emil Schlegel, and also in Franz Eschle and Guttmann’s collection of Rosenbach’s works. Petruschky has been able to demonstrate by means of his Perkutan treatment of tuberculosis, and by the elaboration of his degrees of dilution in the administration of tuberculin, how strongly the processes of cure rest upon graduated stimuli.
ON COLLOIDAL CHEMISTRY, INVESTIGATIONS OF IONS, THEORIES OF HEREDITY, STIMULATING DOSES IN LIGHT THERAPY.
The same author relates in the same periodical (“Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Homoeopathie”), No. 3:
I may remind you that doses of a hundredth part of a milligram of the colloidal metals are capable of producing effects which can be physiologically measured; why then is it so difficult for the old school science to accept a general discussion on the experiences of homoeopathic medicinal doses? The early experiments by Naegeli and Ostwald, the later ones by the Frenchman Richet (with radium and infinitesimal doses of formic acid) and Roulin (with aspergillus niger and metallic ferments) we will only mention casually. Bertram’s confirmations are interesting. He established that plants are extremely sensitive to infinitesimal traces of catalytic fertilisers, and Loucheux thinks that under certain conditions a science of “plant homoeopathy could be elaborated here.” Also the theory of heredity is that of the effect of the infinitesimally small. When we are asked to accept that an individual with all his peculiarities-the idiot as well as the genius-at the moment of his conception is formed with all his possibilities in one ten- millionth part of a cubic millimetre, when Meirowsky asks us to recognise in his scientific works about heredity on the analysis of the skin, that the naevi are due to a specific alteration in the condition of the germplasm-he assumes an enormous number of the heredity-units (genes),-when Kahn in discussing the effects of the iodine in the thyroid glands, points out that the iodine- component is a decisive life-factor (the blood contains 0,000,000,000.6 per cent. of iodine) and thinks: “if Napoleon had had two milligrams of iodine less in his constitution…the history of Europe would have been different”; if all this is fundamentally correct, or ought to be correct, then I cannot see why the modern nature-scientist cannot extend his hand to Hahnemann and rejoice that a hundred years ago he taught how medicinal substances could be unfolded by fine division, bringing to the bedside help which was not entirely dependent upon the crude theories of matter then prevailing, theories which in many instances were bound to prove erroneous.
The investigations of the radium and X-ray physicians in their treatment of cancer with rays have made it possible to establish that the action of the rays upon the tissues may be destructive, arresting, stimulating, or indifferent. Here also physical research must go hand in hand with biological research. If rays were applied only from the point of view of the destruction of cancer tissues, without considering that in some individuals, through exposure to the rays the blood might undergo changes so serious that processes endangering life might result from it, then this would be a therapy which took no account of the biological point of view.
When discussing the science of dietetics and pharmacology, Dr. Meng says:
Here too you see that interesting parallels run between the effect of finely divided medicinal substances and the organism, and how strongly medicinal stimuli are dependent on the soil upon which they fall. Here also you have effects upon each individual organ and upon the whole system. The absence of one important accessory food factor-the best known is Funk’s vitamine-can arrest the function of one definite organ or of a number of organs. The disease picture can be very characteristic (beri- beri, scurvy) or it can be very general, as for instance when a severe poison causes death very quickly: the appetite wanes, general progressive debility occurs, together with severe loss of body-weight in spite of the administration of all other important substances, such as albumen, fat, and carbo-hydrates, and there is an absence of the sexual libido, and eventually death.
The well-known homoeopathic physician, Dr. Stuart Close of Brooklyn, writes in “The Homoeopathic Recorder,” 1921, No. 3, page 130-131, on “potentising and infinitesimal doses”:
“The smallest material thing in the world, the last in the series of little things known to modern science, is the electron, or electric corpuscle. It is supposed that the chemical atoms are composed of collections of electrons having orbital motions in a sphere of positive electrification. The electron is conceived to be billions of times smaller than the atom. Becquerel, the French scientist, compares the electrons in the atom to gnats in the dome of a cathedral.
Zeeman, of Amsterdam, studying light through the Spectroscope, split the spectral line of a flame, by holding the flame between the poles of a powerful electro-magnet, proving that light is an electric phenomenon and showing a close relation between the activities of atoms and the origin of light itself.
Langley, of the Smithsonian Institution, invented the Bolometer, which measures variations of temperature of one hundred millionth of a degree. This represents a change of temperature about equal to that produced by a candle five miles distant.
Light, travelling through space at the rate of 186,000 miles per second, has been found to exert a distinct push or pressure. Hence, Radiation, the force opposed to Gravitation, must be considered in studying the movements of matter in a state of infinitesimal sub-division. This pressure force is measured by the Radiometer, invented by two American physicists, Professors Nicholls and Hull. It is used in connection with the Bolometer, in measuring the rays from radioactive substances.
Pfund, of John Hopkins University, in 1913, perfected a still more sensitive instrument said to be capable of measuring a degree of heat equivalent to that given off by a candle, sixty miles away.
EVIDENCE FOR THE PRESENCE OF MATERIAL IN TRITURATIONS AND SOLUTIONS OF HIGHLY DILUTED SUBSTANCES.
Griesselich’s “Hygea” of the year 1842, Vol. 16, page 17, contains an extensive essay by Dr. Carl Mayrhofer on “Microscopic Examinations of Homoeopathic metallic preparations explained by diagrams.” The author has again tested by means of the microscope various potentised triturations of metals (platinum, gold, silver, zinc, mercury, iron, lead, copper and tin). He alleges he has seen individual particles of metals by a magnification of 120, in the 9th and 10th centesimal potencies; in platinum he believes he has been able to observe isolated particles “even in the 12th and 13th centesimal,” at least they had the appearance which metal presents, before it has been triturated.
Dr. O. Buchmann describes in a prize essay entitled a “Microscopic and other observations and experiments to prove the solubility of metals and other hard substances, chiefly in the Homoeopathic dilutions and triturations” (Leipsic, 1884), what he observed under the 100, 1200 and 3000 magnifications; the measurements which he undertook are between 1/500 to 1/5000 millimeter.
The well-known physicist Wilhelm Ostwald of Leipsic, in the “Journal of Physical Chemistry,” 1887, pages 289-330, and in the “Allg. hom. Ztg.,” Vol. 134, Nos. 21-26, reports on experiments carried out with highly attenuated substances in solution, with the assistance of highly saturated solutions. We only give one instance out of the abundance of the material quoted:
One human hair has no influence upon over-cooled salol (with this substances and (common) salt Ostwald carried out his experiments-R.H.). If you rub a hair over one consolidated crystal of this substances and then immerse it immediately in fluid, salol, it at once produces consolidation. It is not necessary for this purpose to use special pressure; a gentle passing over which only slightly curves the hair is sufficient in most instances… As a hair has an uneven surface which may act like a file upon the soft crystal of salol. I replaced this with a finely spun glass hair. In this instance also the effect was produced with great regularity. If the hair was passed between the fingers after touching the crystal it did not lose its effect, even after passing it through twenty times. Between two layers of soft rubber, however, the salol could be very easily wiped away. One glass hair was made effective by contact and then cleaned in fine quartz powder. It remained effective and also the quartz powder had acquired one particle of activity, producing in some tests consolidation but not in all. Testing the material and objects used by means of a control experiment, was in no case omitted.
Micro-chemical reactions by Behrend have succeeded, in recent years, in ascertaining the presence of substances in dilutions which correspond to our 6th to 7th decimal dilutions.
Through the discovery of the ultra-microscope we succeeded in explaining finer conditions of dispersion. By this means sub- microns may be rendered visible. These are particles in a solution which are smaller than 0.1 micron.
It was formerly supposed that the atom was the smallest component part of matter. For a long time the atom had only a theoretical existence, its existence being assumed in order to account for the chemical combinations which take place between different elements in certain proportions. Even the Ultra- Microscope, which enables us to see and count particles of gold in ruby glass averaging six millionths of a millimeter in diameter, failed to reveal the atom. It remained for Rutherford, studying radium with his Electroscope to identify and count individual atoms.
(Dr. Stuart Close of Brooklyn, in “Homoeopathic Recorder,” March, 1921).
It is possible to establish the proof of the presence of Arsen by the Arsen mirror in a quantity of 1/100 to 1/1000 milligrams; if we allow arsen hydrogen to act upon paper saturated with silver nitrate (method of Gutzeit) it is possible to prove with certainty 1/10000 to 1/20000th milligramme of arsen in the brown colouring which appears. Nitric acid forms a deep blue ring when dropped into a solution of di-phenylamine. The reaction is still possible in a dilution of 1 to 5 millions. Nitric acid can be proved with sulphanile acid, with sulphuric acid naphthaline in a dilution of 1 to 100,000,000.
The sensitiveness of spectrum analysis is still greater. This proves that sodium is still present in a quantity of 1/3000000 milligramme (about the 9th homoeopathic decimal dilution).
ON THE EFFICACY OF THE SMALLEST QUANTITY.
We extract the following notes partly from a public lecture given by a homoeopathic physician, Dr. Kroner of Potsdam, some twenty years ago.
According to some experiments by Professor Hugo Schulz of Greifswald, sublimate of mercury acts in a dilution of 1 in 20,000 upon the growth of yeast cells, either destructively or at least by arresting them; in a dilution of 1 in 500,000 and higher, the yeast cells grow more quickly than they would do if no sublimate were added (5th to 6th Homoeopathic decimal dilution).
According to Low, uranian salts up to a dilution of 0.05 per cent (5/10000) acts upon young peas and oat plants as a poison, whereas a dilution of 0.01 (=1/10000=4th homoeopathic decimal potency) resulted in an increased growth of the plants.
Bohn found as early as 1875 that beans could be made to germinate in spring water but not in distilled water. It was found that the reason for this surprising phenomenon was due to the extremely small amount of copper in the distilled water (which was distilled in copper vessels). The Frenchman Coupin, when making similar experiments with grains of wheat, found that copper in general was more harmful to the growth of the roots than any other plant poison, even in a dilution of 1 in 700,000,000 (=approx. the 9th homoeopathic decimal potency).
The botanist Nageli also proved that copper acts as a poison on plant cells, especially on algae, in a dilution of 1 in 100,000,000 (8th homoeopathic decimal potency).
When making experiments with sundew (Drosera rotundifolia) the well-known insect-eating marshy plant, Darwin found that the leaf glands are still stimulated by a dilution of 1 in 20,000,000 of ammonium phosphoricum (7th homoeopathic decimal dilution).
Gabr. Bertrand has established that aspergillus niger, a species of mucoidins can still be favourably influenced by a dilution of Manganum sulphuricum of 1 in 10,000 millions (10th homoeopathic decimal potency); silver nitrate 1 in 600,000 still acted harm-fully on the same plant.
Solutions of arsenic, according to investigations by Zand, killed infusoria, in a dilution of 1/100,000 (7th decimal potency), solutions of 1 in 1,000,000 still retarded their development; 1 in 5,000,000 increased the process of division; with a solution of 10,000 millions (10th decimal potency), the animalculae were twice as numerous in eight days as those in the same water, without arsenic.
We shall only mention in passing the perceptibility of olfactory substances in incredibly small quantities through the olfactory senses in man and animals (for instance, in the dog and more marked still in many insects, as butterflies). But it seems to us that we should mention a fact that is frequently overlooked, but which corresponds entirely with homoeopathic laws, that certain smells alter, for instance, noxious odours are changed into scents. The whole perfume industry is built up on the use of highly diluted olfactory substances.