Hahnemann’s Assistants

We will accord permission to Dr., Lehmann to establish himself here as homoeopathic practitioner and as a help to Hofrath Hahnemann, and as such to prepare and privately dispense the remedies required for the treatment of his patients. …


HAHNEMANN’S REQUEST TO ALLOW DR. LEHMANN TO ESTABLISH HIMSELF AS HIS ASSISTANT. (All documents of Supplement 122 are copied from the original kept in the private archives of Anhalt at Zerbst.)

Most Serene and Gracious Lord,

For some years I availed myself of the permission, most graciously accorded by Your lamented Brother, my patron, whom I could never honour sufficiently to employ as assistant a homoeopathic physician, not dependent on the Allopathic medical authorities, whom I would still have retained had his moral conduct been only to tolerable.

Now I am compelled, by my great age and the afflux of patients from far and near which overtaxed my powers, to select another successor and assistant, and my choice has fallen on Dr. Lehmann of Leitzkau, a man who has for several years enjoyed a good repute as an allopathic physician, and a person of quiet and steady character, who has now embraced Homoeopathy from conviction, and displays such an active zeal for this health- promoting science, that he gives hopes of being able, with my aid, to do some excellent service therein.

I have considered it my duty to announce my choice to Your Serene highness, as your most obedient servant.


Cothen, Aug.6th,1832.

This letter has the following remark written on the back: The government authorities must report on this matter. Cothen, August 12th, 1832. The Director of the State College von Reuthe.

And a further remark:

The Director of the High Medical Council must express his opinion on this point soon.

The High Government of the State, v. REUTHE.

Cothen, Aug. 21st, 1832.

As a report of opinion the following was sent in:

1. It is unknown to the Directors of the Medical Council that Hofrath Hahnemann had authority to choose assistants which were independent of the Medical Council.

2. Dr. Mossdorf to whom Hofrath Hahnemann seems to allude, was accorded permission by His late Serene Highness to settle here as a medical practitioner, and was accepted as a subject, and he was also accorded, like the aforesaid Hahnemann, permission to prepare and dispense his own medicines. But he was placed under the direction of the Medical Council like Hofrath Hahnemann, as shown in the letter from the High Authorities. It is now a question of bringing in special physician, which is unnecessary as we are not short of doctors here. For it is known that Dr. Heinrich migrated from here because he could not make a living; the young physicians, Isensee and Heinrich junr. have gone elsewhere as there were no prospects for them, and since then Dr. Hoffmann from Biendorf has become qualified.

Also the appointment of homoeopathic physicians as a special kind of physicians, is not in conformity with science. It is more in keeping with the latter that the State should choose physicians who have sufficient scientific knowledge and intelligence to test the different systems, and are able to adopt the better one, and who consequently may have a conviction of an objective value. No one has ever heard that Brownians, Rollians, Humoral pathologists, and so forth, were appointed as special kinds of physicians.

The dispensing of drugs by the physician is in opposition to the acknowledged principles of the Medical Police. With that is removed a chief means of controlling the physicians, and of protecting the public against mischief and deception through medicines. In every place, where it was practised, it has been, in recent times, strictly forbidden. Only quite recently the prohibition of this has been renewed in Prussia, especially in connection with the homoeopathic physicians, as shown in the enclosed Royal Prussian Decree.

3. Otherwise every physician is at liberty to employ assistants, under the following restrictions.

(a). The authorities must be shown that these assistants (so- called Famuli) have the necessary knowledge. This is acquired either by an examination of the Medical board, or by satisfactory certificates.

(b). The Famuli are only the representatives of the physicians. The rights and privileges of the latter do not extend to them. They may not give medicines to the patients without consulting the physician, and generally they must not treat patients on their own. if they digress from this rule they fall into the category of dabblers.

(c.) The are under the control of the Medical Board, and must submit entirely to their supervision; this, control is very difficult, especially when the physician, who employs the famulus, does not act quite honestly.


Cothen, August 27th, 1832.


The Royal Ministry of March 31st of this year, which deals with matters relating to theology, education, and medicine, has learnt from past experience the necessity of withdrawing from homoeopathic physicians every right which leads to personal dispensing or could be regarded as such, to which belongs especially the preparing of remedies which may be bought from the chemist later, and also the dilution and remaking of remedies bought from the chemist.

A difference can no longer be made between the homoeopaths and the other physicians in respect to the laws governing the dispensing and preparation of remedies, and the former as well as the latter must prescribe their medicines from the chemist’s shop. The homoeopathic physicians, on the other hand, are at liberty, if they have any doubts, to be present themselves, and have them prepared under their supervision, in order to see that the necessary care is used.

With reference to this, the price of the medicines must be established, and only the existing taxes and principles concerning those laws can be used as a guide, that is, the price fixed for the work, with a correct application especially for dispensing fluid medicines, the dividing of powders, long continued trituration, etc., must be drawn up in order to ascertain and stabilise the prices for the remedies prepared according to homoeopathic prescriptions.

While giving public notice of the above orders, we advise the authorities concerned, especially the medical officers of health, to see that these instructions are carried out, and to be guided, in the case of medicines for the poor by the principles quoted.

SUPPLEMENT TO THE OPINION ON PAGE 258 Most obediently p.m. (pro memoria).

To the report, which the Ducal Medical Board have been asked to deliver, and which they recently had the honour to hand in, concerning the employment by Hofrath Hahnemann of an assistant independently of the Medical Board, may be added as supplement:-

(1) That also in the Imperial States of Austria, private dispensing has again been forbidden to the physicians. (Medorrhinum Year book of the Imperial Royal Austrian State, latest issue. Vol. I)

(2) That in the Imp. Austrian States, Hahnemann, s homoeopathic method of treatment has been generally and strictly forbidden especially to all Military Medical Officers by virtue of the above mentioned Decree, through the medical and surgical papers of July 16th. 1832.


BRUNN Cothen, September 14th, 1832.

Then we find the following record of the hearing of Dr. Lehmann:

Actum, Cothen, Sepia 8th, 1832.

To-day, Dr. Gottfried Lehmann, a native of Leitzkau, appeared before the Ducal Government, in response to the citation contained in the Decree of the 4th Inst.

Dr. G. Lehmann has thus become “Respondent” to the Citation.

He has been established as a practitioner in his native town since 1818, but has been staying in Cothen since the 29th of July of this year, partly to study homoeopathy under Hofrath Hahnemann, and partly in order that his wife might be treated by the latter.

After becoming personally acquainted with Hofrath Hahnemann the “Respondent” decided to adopt homoeopathy: he has hitherto been helping Dr. Hahnemann in his professional duties, as the increase of patients is so great that it is impossible for Dr. Hahnemann to treat them all personally. Both Dr. Hahnemann and Dr. G. Lehmann– the “Respondent” wish that the latter should continue to help Dr. Hahnemann.

Dr. G. Lehmann could not at present express any definite wish as to the duration of his sojourn here, this being dependent upon circumstances; it was moreover not his intention to acquire the rights of a subject here, and relinquish the same in the kingdom of Prussia.

For the present he only desires to be allowed to reside here for an indefinite time, with his wife and his two daughters of respectively 6 and 8 years of age, so as to be able to carry out the professional orders given to him by Hofrath Hahnemann.

Although he would not receive any honorarium from Dr. Hahnemann for his professional work, yet he could assure them, that he would be able to live on his private income during his residence here.

In Conclusion, Dr. Gottfried Lehmann handed over a certificate of his examination in Prussia, and of his qualifications as a practitioner, which certificates he asked to have returned to him after perusal.

Read, approved, and signed, DR. LEHMANN.

On September 18th, a Government report of the 11th September, 1832, was laid before His Serene Highness; the introduction contains the rules drawn up by the Medical Board for the appointing of medical assistants, sub. (a), (b) and (c). On account f the police report on Dr. Lehmann (September 8th, 1832), he was informed that Dr. Lehmann had put before the Board his certificates of the State examinations in the prussian kingdom, of May 30th, 1818, according to which he had passed very well in medicine and surgery, and also had the approval of the Ministry of State dealing with clerical, educational, and medical matters, of the 12th of june of the same year. Therefore should he obtain permission to carry out this plans, it would only be necessary that he should receive strict injunctions to keep his duties within the limit of the rules and laid down in 2 and 3, so as to avoid the unpleasant consequences which he might be forced to face in the case of any infringement of them.

The report now repeats the minutes of Lehmann’s statements, on the length of his sojourn, the acquisition of the rights of a subject, and his ability to live on his own income.

After the Government Report the Sovereign issued the following instructions:

As Dr. Lehmann of Leitzkau, has proved by satisfactory certificates, his efficiency as a physician, and as Hofrath Hahnemann on account of his advanced age may well require an assistant, WE allow him, on his application, to acquire the assistance of Dr. Lehmann, as is stated in No. 2 of this report, for which purpose the latter has been granted permission to reside in this Capital.


Dornburg, 7th October, 1832.

Therefore Dr. Lehmann was not granted the right of private dispensing.

The conditions under which Dr. Lehmann was permitted to take the post of assistant with Hahnemann, would not satisfy him for long, and therefore Dr. Hahnemann addressed another petition to the Duke, on December 8th, 1832: Ducal Highness, Gracious Lord,

I tender your Ducal Highness my most humble thanks for allowing me to choose Dr. Lehmann as my assistant. Dr. Lehmann having already been familiar with homoeopathic teachings, has by his zeal acquired such perfection under my guidance, that I can already count him among my best pupils.

He has, therefore, already afforded me some help in my overwhelming heavy professional duties. But the crowd of patients, who have been given up by their allopathic physicians as incurable, and come for help from homoeopathic science, from far and near, increased daily; conviction has been awakened among the public that real and lasting cure can only be obtained through the new method or treatment.

I therefore dare to apply once more, humbly but in good faith to your Serene Ducal Highness that you may deign to accord to Dr. Lehmann the same position of free activity, as your much lamented Brother, the unforgettable Duke Ferdinand, graciously conceded to Dr. Mossdorf, my previous medical assistant. Only thus Ducal Highness would find in him, after my death, a pupil educated under my guidance, and a genuine and pure homoeopathic physician for Your capital, otherwise he will shortly return to his country as a homoeopathic physician in Magdeburg, and I shall be left alone in my old age, and have to refuse more than half the patients who seek treatment from me.

Your Serene Highness’ most obedient, SAMUEL HAHNEMANN.

Cothen, December 3rd, 1832.

A Government Report of December 24th 1832, in which the position of Dr. Mossdorf was defined and which concluded with the words; “The Government must in all submissiveness and reverence leave the final decision to the wise judgment of His Serene Highness,” resulted in the following reply:

We will accord permission to Dr., Lehmann to establish himself here as homoeopathic practitioner and as a help to Hofrath Hahnemann, and as such to prepare and privately dispense the remedies required for the treatment of his patients. In all other matters Dr. Lehmann is subject to all the laws of the State, and all Police regulations.

HEINRICH Cothen, January 12th, 1833.

A copy of this reply was sent on January 15th, to Dr. Lehmann, Hofrath Hahnemann, the Ducal Medical Board, and the Ducal Police Office. At the same time appeared in the Official Gazette of Cothen, the following communication:

Dr. Lehmann of Leitzkau has received permission from the High Authorities to establish himself in the Capital, as a medical practitioner and assistant to Hofrath Hahnemann, and in that capacity is permitted to prepare the remedies required for the treatment of his patients, with instructions that otherwise he must observe all the State and Police laws regulations.

C.F. BEHR Cothen, Jan. 15th, 1833.

This matter therefore, occupied the authorities from the beginning of August until the middle of January of the following year.


This decision of the Duke appeared so important to Hahnemann, that he announced it himself by the following public notification, in Schweikert’s “Zeitung der homoeopathischen Heilkunst ” (Vol. 7, 1833, page 188):

The dispensing of Homoeopathic remedies freed form the obsolete privileges of the apothecaries.

In contrast to the notification which was published in the Prussian Staatzeitung, on April 17th of this year, when in order to favour the old privileges of the apothecaries, the homoeopathic physicians were again refused the right to give their remedies privately to their patients, it is a pleasure to make known to our contemporaries the decision of a noble-minded Sovereign, the Duke Heinrich of Anhalt-Cothen, who after becoming convinced of the great advantage of the homoeopathic method over the old medical science, has,, of his own inclination and wisdom, decreed in his own hand-writing, that Dr. Lehmann should be granted the same concessions as Hofrath Hahnemann had obtained from the Duke’s greatly lamented Brother Ferdinand, to prepare and hand his own remedies privately to his patients ( without let or hindrance), which will now be a great blessing for suffering humanity.


Cothen, April 26, 1833.



Hahnemann to Boenninghausen: Cothen, December 15th, 1832.

I would also like to mention to you, that I and my assistant Dr. Lehmann (who in a Remarkably short time has become a keen and capable homoeopath, after seventeen years of allopath practice) have treated all patients, with incredibly good results, for the last four months, with olfactory medicines only (with more or less prolonged smelling ), and according to circumstances the medicine was repeated every 7,10 or 24 days, or left to produce its effects for several weeks; sometimes it was given alternatively with the next best indicated remedy.


28th, April, 1833.

Through the providence of God I have an excellent assistant in my unbearably heavy yet highly blessed practice, a vigorous Dr. Lehmann, who loves me as a son, and who every day regrets his seventeen years of allopathic misdeeds, lege artis, in nine months he has become changed into such an excellent and true homoeopath, that it is a pleasure to work with him and accomplish much good.

Cothen, 8th, Feby, 1835.

With regard to myself, i try, and I think that at my age no one can blame me for it, to gradually withdraw myself from excessive work, and to live now a little for myself, but I find that it is difficult for me to do so;. for I am constantly besieged by patients. I wish I knew what to do in this matter. However much I endeavour to allot my superfluous work to my true colleague, I rarely succeed; all demand me. In addition there is the practice by correspondence which cannot be relegated to him.



Already on June 20th, 1830, Hahnemann wrote to Boenninghausen:

The repertory which was announced without my approval is ready, but as I have been on friendly terms with Arnold for twenty years, I cannot look for another publisher and he is not yet able to undertake the publication as he has lost several thousand thalers over the publication of a book which is supposed to be an adjunct to homoeopathy (about which he has unfortunately not consulted me).

Therefore we must exercise patience.

Then later: Cothen, 16th, Jany, 1831.

My repertory was an alphabetical record, which could only be of great service in looking up the necessary symptoms of medicine, if very complete and this perfection is not yet to be found in mine. It is therefore not to be regretted that remains unpublished but in its place I draw your attention to Ruckert’s systematic representation of all the homoeopathic medicines (so far known), which I recommend very much.

I have not yet seen a similar work or Weber’s (although it is dedicated to me and contains a preface by me). Therefore I cannot judge of it, but in any case it cannot surpass Ruckert’s work in usefulness.

Cothen, November 25th, 1833.

A dictionary of symptoms would occupy an efficient and very industrious assistant secretary, uninterruptedly for a whole year sixteen years ago I compiled for myself a dictionary of symptoms or the medicines that had then been proved, and I wrote in a large folio volume. One written now would be twice as large. Dr. Ruckert (who afterwards published his systematic representation) wrote for me, one of antipsoric remedies, when he was in kothen four years ago, after his return from Liefland, in the autumn; I kept him here for that purpose for six months, as he was unable to find employment at once.

(Both volumes are in the possession of Dr. Richard Haehl, of Stuttgart.)

Cothen, June, 30th, 1834.

After considering the matter with Mr. Jahr, I find that it is impossible to arrange a repertory differently from that which you and Jahr have compiled, and you can be perfectly satisfied. Only a dictionary would give the seeker more complete information, and we can well leave this work to Mr. Jahr, whom, if God grants me a further lease of life, I shall sometime be able to put in the position to do it; he has a great aptitude for it, and will make himself far more useful to our science, I think, than if he went to Paris, Brussels, or America.

Cothen, Aug. 21st, 1834,

If God permits, Jahr will work out the symptoms dictionary, and I shall contribute what I can. He is gifted for it, and has unswerving diligence. I think that it will have to be printed as one large octavo dictionary, with nonpareil or pearl type like Cramer’s dictionary printed by Vieweg. It will be an immense but valuable work.


Dr. Roth of Paris, who translated Jahr’s repertory into French, criticised, in a letter to Hahnemann of August 23rd, 1834, ” the deficiencies of the work, which is desultory and vague”

Many things have been printed with interlined letters which are not proved; they are pure fiction or originate from mixtures and preparations, and not from simple medicines.

There are numerous anatomical errors. errors of expression. terms which savour of the very worst allopathy, bad and false diagnosis, such as nervous pains in the eye. The terms are not consecutive, and there are many useless repetitions and provincialisms. Homoeopathy, which was given to us by the genius of Hahnemann, belongs to the world. I beg of you, Hofrath, in the name of your great truth, do not associate with your great work a certain hasty production of books which will only cause harm.

Many objections could be raised against the idea of Mr. v. Boenninghausen to produce a dictionary of symptoms. I am alarmed when I hear that they have begun to make mixtures of homoeopathic remedies. Goodbye truth!

Hahnemann to Boenninghausen: Cothen, Dec. 26th, 1834.

I tried to make a better and more useful man of Jahr during the eight months he was here; may God give his blessing.

The Princess Friedrich was left without a physician-in- ordinary as she had dismissed Dr. Aegidi because he would not listen sympathetically to her complaints, and I suggested Jahr to her, and he is now with her. She wanted to pay off Dr. Aegidi with a few thalers — because he had not made an arrangement that there should be a notice of three or six months on either side. But I ventured to make such strong representations to her against it, that I was afraid of incurring her complete displeasure. However she listened and consulted a lawyer, who advised that she should give him six months stipend, and 20 Ldr. for travelling expenses as far as Dusseldorf, which she did. I could not do more for him. According to his last letter he seems to have expected much more from me.

Richard Haehl
Richard M Haehl 1873 - 1932 MD, a German orthodox physician from Stuttgart and Kirchheim who converted to homeopathy, travelled to America to study homeopathy at the Hahnemann College of Philadelphia, to become the biographer of Samuel Hahnemann, and the Secretary of the German Homeopathic Society, the Hahnemannia.

Richard Haehl was also an editor and publisher of the homeopathic journal Allgemcine, and other homeopathic publications.

Haehl was responsible for saving many of the valuable artifacts of Samuel Hahnemann and retrieving the 6th edition of the Organon and publishing it in 1921.
Richard Haehl was the author of - Life and Work of Samuel Hahnemann