2. Principles


In chronic states of old persons where the circulatory troubles are more and more important, the vascular drainage, has, on the contrary, an absolutely capital value….


Dr. Fortier-Bernoville speaks in this lecture about the vessels and their content. At first he insists on some general principles that should guide us in the practice of the drainage of the circulatory system.

1. The drainage of the circulatory system is an integral part of all the organs whatever they may be : Digestive apparatus, urinary organs, skin, etc….As for example in chronic rheumatism, when mind always turns towards the remedies of drainage of urinary organs in order to eliminate the toxins or residues fixed on the articulations, we should not forget the local circulatory factor, capillary, veins even arterial on the base of these articulations.

2. The circulatory drainage allows an action on the vegetative nervous system and particularly on the sympathetic system, which as we know regulates the tonus of the vessels.

3. The drainage differs according to the age of the patient, the acuteness or the chronicity of the affections. In acute cases in young subjects of whose the circulatory system is indemn from the anatomical point of view, it is enough to apply the law of similars in therapeutics to cure the patient and the question of drainage is of little importance. By giving the indicated remedies one can get an effect on the circulatory apparatus as on the other apparatuses. In chronic states of old persons where the circulatory troubles are more and more important the vascular drainage, has, on the contrary, an absolutely capital value.

4. The action of drainage on the circulatory apparatus is always general. When we speak of the elective action of a remedy on the veins and on the arteries, we can get a schema. These remedies have very often, a general action on the organism. In Homoeopathy we must not forget to observe the law of similars, neither must we forget to consider the individual as a whole.

After having clearly described the above general notions Dr. Bernoville places himself on the ground of biochemistry, establishes a series of interesting relations between some constitutive fundamentals, humours and tissues and the predominant action of some important Homoeopathic ground remedies. The blood plasma and the lymphs contain essentially Sodium chloride : The remedies that will act on the plasma electively are the sodium salts : Natrum muriaticum and Natrum sulphuricum. The first acting on the oxygenoids who are depressed and tubercular, suffering from low blood pressure, generally young persons, the second in hydrogenoids, real “barometre patients” who are generally more aged than the subjects of Natrum muriaticum. The hematicas contain specially Potassium, some iron and carbon. The elective remedies of anemia will be Kali carbonicum; the salts of iron: Ferrum metallicum, (chronic state), Ferrum phosphoricum (acute state) in the case of the diminution of the percentage of haemoglobin; Carbo vegetabilis, the most important remedy of grave diseases with which we must compare Arsenicum album, which experimentally causes anemia and which may be used in some cases of pernicious anemia.

Leucocytes are of complex composition of nucleo-proteids, lecithins and cholesterin. Calcarea carbonica will be the remedy of the ground of lymphatic subjects with inflammation of ganglions and hyperleucocytosis. Hepar sulphur and Mercurius solubilis will be the remedies of subjects having tendency to suppurations. Phosphorus and Arsenicum are the remedies of leucopenia.

The fibrin contains some very complicated compounds but of which the base is always proteins and albuminoids : The remedy of hemorrhagic states will be the serpent poisons.

Phosphorus will act on the endothelium of the arteries: Silicea and Graphites will act on veins, specially of medial tunic when there is venous dilatation. Fluoric acid and Calcarea fluorica act on aneurism of the capillaries and we know that in biological chemistry if one wishes to check the spontaneous coagulation of blood one will apply some Sodium fluoride. Thus there is very close relation between bio-chemistry and the indications of some important Homoeopathic remedies.

Now Dr. Bernoville arrives at the essential part of his lecture: The practical indications of drainage as regards capillaries, veins and arteries.

1. Drainage of the capillaries

The capillary diseases are difficult to observe. Therefore, they have not been well studied. But there exists an interesting method of examination of the circulation in capillaries: Capillaroscopy, which is unfortunately very little known in France, and has recently been taken up by Dr. Franklin Bircher of Zurich, a naturist. This method consists in observing the capillaries on lips and nails with a relatively weak enlargement and to take their photograph by a special dispositive. In the first photographs of ill persons, arthritics, autointoxicated, etc.,… some of the capillaries seem to be sinuous, spasmed, under the influence of appropriate regimens and some treatment, some modifications are seen. The capillaries have become healthy and normal.

The lesion of capillaries may be of three types: Thrombosis, aneurism and degeneration.

1. Thrombosis of the capillaries: Urticaria is a sign of capillary thrombosis with exudation. We know that the important Homoeopathic remedies indicated are : Belladonna (action on sympathetic element), Apis (action on exudate), Urtica urens, Fragaria, etc., (action on humoral unstability). The thrombosis of the capillaries are suitable to some remedies of spasm such as Cuprum or still to other remedies like Antimonium tartaricum, antimonium arsenicum, Carbo vegetabilis (cyanosis).

In subjects who have become old and suffers from sclerosis the capillaries are gradually replaced by fibrous tissues.

2. Aneurism of the capillaries: The most important signs are the varices. Their ground remedies are: Thuya and Lycopodium. The other remedies are: Calcarea fluorica, Fluoric acid, Tuberculinum.

3. The degeneration of capillaries: It seems that they are suitable to Phosphorous, Lycopodium, Arsenicum, Secale, the last one acting on the capillaries of the arteries.

2. Drainage of the veins

The question here is more practical and well-known. We have to deal with all congestions of the veins, the phlebitis, varices, localised congestions, portal in particular, but we should speak here only of the important remedies of the veins. The most important remedy that dominates the treatment of venous circulation is Pulsatilla. Hamamelis is less important, but is a complementary of Pulsatilla. Sepia is indicated in the congestion of portal veins. Finally, Sulphur and Lycopodium act in the congestions of veins as well as of arteries.

In inflammations of veins we find remedies of acute stage and the remedies of phlebitis. They are : Belladonna, Apis, Mercurium solubilis, Arnica, Bryonia, Lachesis.

In varices by the side of Pulsatilla, we must think of Vipera the important ground remedy corresponding to a graver state than that of Pulsatilla or Lachesis. (The serpent poisons acting clearly on veins) and to Clematis vitalba.

In varicose ulcers the often indicated remedies are: Arnica, Fluoric acid, Carbo vegetabilis, and Carbo animals (indurations).

Finally for localisation of venous congestion on the rectum we have the remedies of hemorrhoids that we may classify in the following manner:

1. Bleeding hemorrhoids where the congestion is more important than inflammation: Sulphur, Nux vomica and Hamamelis which may be applied in the same treatment.

2. Painful hemorrhoids bleeding less: Aesculus hippocastanum (sensation of a plug or a pin in the rectum), Aloe (protruding hemorrhoids with the sensation of a ball in the rectum), Kali carbonicum (sensation of ball and of congestion, ameliorated by pressure); Ignatia (paradoxal troubles); Sepia (Sensation of a ball and pain going upwards); Collinsonia (hemorrhoids during pregnancy).

3. In hemorrhoids where infection is important with deep red anus, violent pain while passing stool and cleaning the anus: Muriatic acid.

4. Very painful hemorrhoids with fissure: Nitric acid and its complementaries Paeonia & Ratanhia.

The treatment of hemorrhoids is well known in Homoeopathy. When the hemorrhoids bleed much Sulphur 200 should not be given, i.e., to say the similimum should not be observed but simile remedy as for example Nux vomica 200 with Arnica 30 will soon check the bleeding. We know that for Dr. Nebel Nux vomica is the canaliser of Sulphur on small intestines and Aloe on the rectum.

Let us not forget that Hamamelis, Pulsatilla and Aesculus are the three important remedies. They should be applied in the lower dilutions in venous troubles. If it is a case of portal congestion Carduus marianus is an excellent drainer specially of Sepia.

3. Drainage of arteries

We will study successively the treatment of the congestion, of inflammation, obturation and finally degenerence of arteries.

1. Congestive states of arteries. In acute congestion we will require the important remedies of acute states; Aconite, Belladonna, Ferrum phosphoricum, Bryonia, Cactus grandiflorus and Gelsemium. In the chronic cases dominates Sulphur for arterial hypertension. Here an excellent vascular drainer in lower dilution will be Cereus bomplandi 3x; Aesculus 3 will act by decreasing the stasis of the patient of Sulphur, but we must not forget here the renal drainage by remedies like Berberis. The Sulphur subject often becomes a Lycopodium subject (liver plays an important part in congestive state), and lastly Phosphorous a remedy of degenerating state.

2. Arteritis. The important medicine is Secale cornutum; humid gangrene indicates Arsenicum album. Arterial spasms call for Secale cornutum which is here a fundamental remedy. Less important are Cuprum and Cimicifuga. With cyanosis we must think of Lachesis and Carbo vegetabilis. One important fact from the point of view of physiopathology in the question of arteritis, is now known and quite a class of subjects who have chronic rheumatism are in reality patients who have arthrosis, i.e., to say they suffer from some trophic troubles of their articulations related to some local arteritis, where we must think of using Secale cornutum and Phosphorous as ground remedies.

3. Vascular degeneration: Erectile tumours, aneurysm. The Homoeopathic treatment can do nothing in acute or old aneurism. In certain cases, however, it can check the aggravation of aneurism thanks to Phosphorous, Lycopodium and Aurum by the side of the treatment of syphilis which may be the cause.

Generally we may say that in the arteritis and aneurism, the drainage seems to be less important than it is in congestive states of veins where it is very important.

Mauritius Fortier-Bernoville
Mauritius (Maurice) Fortier Bernoville 1896 – 1939 MD was a French orthodox physician who converted to homeopathy to become the Chief editor of L’Homeopathie Moderne (founded in 1932; ceased publication in 1940), one of the founders of the Laboratoire Homeopathiques Modernes, and the founder of the Institut National Homeopathique Francais.

Bernoville was a major lecturer in homeopathy, and he was active in Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis, and a founder of the le Syndicat national des médecins homœopathes français in 1932, and a member of the French Society of Homeopathy, and the Society of Homeopathy in the Rhone.

Fortier-Bernoville wrote several books, including Une etude sur Phosphorus (1930), L'Homoeopathie en Medecine Infantile (1931), his best known Comment guerir par l'Homoeopathie (1929, 1937), and an interesting work on iridology, Introduction a l'etude de l'Iridologie (1932).

With Louis-Alcime Rousseau, he wrote several booklets, including Diseases of Respiratory and Digestive Systems of Children, Diabetes Mellitus, Chronic Rheumatism, treatment of hay fever (1929), The importance of chemistry and toxicology in the indications of Phosphorus (1931), and Homeopathic Medicine for Children (1931). He also wrote several short pamphlets, including What We Must Not Do in Homoeopathy, which discusses the logistics of drainage and how to avoid aggravations.

He was an opponent of Kentian homeopathy and a proponent of drainage and artificial phylectenular autotherapy as well.