Hahnemann’s proving symptoms of homeopathy remedy Moschus from Materia Medica Pura, which Samuel Hahnemann wrote between 1811 to 1821 …


(From vol. I, 3rd edit., 1830.)

(The unctuous substance contained in the hairy bag situated behind the navel of the musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), inhabiting the mountainous parts of Asia, is dried to the greenish musk of commence.)

The following symptoms, which it would be desirable to see increased to greater completeness, give us some indications of a very powerful substance with qualities not met with in any other drug.

Hitherto only a very empirical use has been made of musk, and especially in these latter times it has been so universally abused by being given in large expensive doses to dying persons, that it has been universally ridiculed by the public.

If we knew the exact kinds of convulsions that musk is capable of producing, which, however, have been only indicated by this one word by medical authors, according to their usual custom, we might determine the cases of some convulsive affections of children in which this drug might be homoeopathically servicable.

That it is a useful remedy in various kinds of tetanus we learn from the very precise experiences of LENTIN, ZANETTI, MORGENSTERN, ROBOL and others. In these cases musk acts homoeopathically as we can see from its peculiar symptoms.

We shall learn great curative powers from it in the tense, tonic spasmodic conditions of most hypochondriacal persons, provided we do not use it in the large doses hitherto employed, but in the smallest highly potentized doses at all events as a homoeopathic intermediate remedy.

For this purpose a grain of good musk is triturated with three times 100 grains of milk sugar for three hours up to the million-fold powder attenuation, and the solution of one grain of this in 100 drops of diluted alcohol, after two successions, is further brought through 25 dilution phials (each filled to two thirds, by 100 drops of alcohol up to the decillion-fold potency (according to the directions in the second part of the Chronic Diseases).A small globule moistened with this is the appropriate homoeopathic dose.

Its power of exciting the sexual function is primary action, and it produces the opposite condition in its secondary action; so that persons who carry musk about them, in order to make them smell pleasantly, weaken themselves by the continual influence of this powerful perfume on the nerves, and cause a number of nervous excitations.

The smell of musk communicated to clothes and vessels, remains for ever so many years, and is hardly to be got rid of by the aid of heat, wherefore such things ought to be carefully removed from patients affected by chronic disease.

[HAHNEMANN was aided in this proving by GROSS, FRIEDRICH HAHNEMANN, and STAPF.

Symptoms are derived from the following old-school authorities:

BARTHOLIN, TH., Epist. Medorrhinum, Cent. ii.

BOECLER, Adnot. ad Herrmanni Cynos. Mat. Medorrhinum

BOERHAAVE, De Morb, Nerv.

BOYLE, rob., de Insigni Effl. Effic,

CARTHEUSER, Fundam Mat. Medorrhinum

CRANZ, H. J. N., Mat. Medorrhinum, i.

CRELL, LOR., in Baldonger’s magaz., vii.

CULLEN,Mat. Medorrhinum, i.

FULLER, Pharm. Extemp.

HEMANN, J. A., Medorrhinum Aufsatz. Berlin, 1778.

HOFFMANN, FR., Medorrhinum rat. Syst., iii.

LOESEKE, Mat. Medorrhinum

MEAD, Monita med.

MEDICUS, F. C., Samml. v. Beobacht. A. d. Arzn., ii.

MERCURIALIS, H., De Compos. Medorrhinum, i.

MORGENSTERN, in Nova acta Nat. Cur., iv, 1770.

PELARGUS, Obs., ii.

PIDERIT, Pharm. Rat.

ERIL, Erkenntniss u. Kur d. Fieb., iv.

RIEDLIN, Lin. Medorrhinum

ROLFINCK, Epist. Meth. Cogn. Et Curand. M., Cap. de Cap. dol.

SANCTORIUS, Comment. In Artem. Medorrhinum Gal.

SCHROECK, LUCAS, Hist Moschi. Aug. Vindel, 1682.

SENNERT, Medorrhinum pr., lib. iv.

SYLVIUS, JAC., Meth Medic. Comp. et Simpl, i. cap. de Animalibus.

TRALLES, B. L., de Mosch laudibus et abusu limitandis is medela morborum, Vratisl., 1783.

VOGEL., Hist. Mat. Medorrhinum

WALL., in Philosoph. Transact., no. 474.

WEDEL, G. W., Ameon. Mat. Medorrhinum

WEICKHARD, Medorrhinum pract. Handbuch. Heilbronn und Rothenb., 1798, 1799.

WHYTT, ROB., Works.

The 1st edit. Has 39 symptoms, the 2nd and 3rd 152.]


Vertigo. [CARTHEUSER, Fundum. Mat. Medorrhinum, p. 380.]

He has a feeling in the head like vertigo. (From two grains in powder.)

On the slightest movement of the head, giddy swaying before the eyes, as if something moved rapidly up and down (immediately), merely from smelling). (From two grains rubbed up with sugar and water, given in three doses in two days.) [Stf.]

Whirling in the forehead and before the eyes, worse on stooping (aft. 1/8 h.). [Stf.]

5. Vertigo with nausea, so that he must lie down; at the same time longing for black coffee (aft. 30 h.). [Fr.H-n.]

Stupefaction of the brain. [B. L. TRALLES, De Moschi laudibus et abusu limitandis in medala morborum, Vratisl. 1783-8. (Observations.) ]

Stupefying, compressive headache on a small spot, just above the root of the nose (aft. 1 h.).

He feels sometimes as if his senses would leave him, with general stupefying pressure on the brain, like a compression. [Gss.]

Confusion of the head, its upper part seems to him stretched, but painless. [Gss.]

Confusion of the head as from intoxication. [TRALLES, l. c.]

Headache. [CARTHEUSER, l. c. – LUCAS SCHROCK. Hist. Moschi, Aug. Vindel., 1682. (General statement.) – Rolfinck, Epist. Meth. Cogn. Et Curand. M. cap. de cap. dol. (Obsevation of effect of odour.) ]

Violent headache. [ROB. BOYLE, De Insignni Effl. Effic. Cap. 6. (Observation of effect of odour.) ]

15. During strong movement of the head, e.g. on going upstairs, a painful feeling therein (aft. 4 h.). [Stf.]

Heaviness in the head. [TRALLES, l. c. – Fr.H-n. ]

Heavy feeling in the head (aft. ½ h.). [Stf.]

Her whole head is painful; she has drawing here and there, extending to the nape, where it is tensive; better in the open air, much worse in the room (aft. 1 h.). [Stf.]

Painful drawing in the head, from the occiput into the ears and from the ears to the teeth, more in the right side (aft. 3 h.). [Stf.]

20. In the temple, slight quick drawing. [Gss.]

Spasmodic drawing through the whole head. [Gss.]

Transient drawing aching in the right temple. [Gss.]

On the head and upper part of the forehead general pressure. [Gss.]

Just above the supra-orbital ridge, as if a blunt body were there pressed into the brain. [Gss.]

25. On the left eyebrow, stupefying pressure. [Gss.]

The blood mounts to the head. [SANCTORIUS, Comment. In Artem Medorrhinum gal., § 71. Observation of effect of odour). ]

In the forehead, slight shooting. [Stf.]

Itching here and there on the hairy scalp, going off after scratching. [Gss.]

A smarting in the eyes, as from smoke, with lachrymation (immediately from the smell). [Stf.]

30. Itching in the eyes, so that she must rub them (aft. ½ h.). [Stf.]

Dimness before the eyes. [Stf.]

Heat in the face with dimness before the eyes. [Stf.]

Heat in the face with dimness before the eyes. [Stf.]

Transient pressure on the zygomatic arch, frequently recurring. [Gss.]

On the right zygoma transient, cooling burning (aft. 28 h.). [Gss.]

35. Sudden, transient rushing in the ear, as from the fluttering wing of a large bird, now in the right, now in the left ear (aft. 60 h.). [Gss.]

Epistaxis. [SCHROECK, l. c. – BOECLER, Adnot ad Herrmani Cynos. Mat. Medorrhinum, p. 10 (General statement.) ]

Instantaneous epistaxi, from the smell. [H. MERCURIALIS, De Compos. Medorrhinum, I, Cap. 15. (Observation of effect of inhalation.) ]

Sensation on the tip of the nose, as from the crawling of an insect, which he often tries to wipe away ineffectually, until it goes off spontaneously (aft. 28 h.). [Gss.]

Everything tastes alike; milk has not taste. [Stf.]

40. Repeated, strong, audible eructation of air. [Gss.]

Eructation of air, combined with rising of a tasteless fluid into the mouth. [Gss.]

Scraping sensation up the oesophagus, like heartburn, with some nausea as in water-brash. [Gss.]

Nausea seemed to rise up from the scrobiculus cordis, during which the navel was retracted, with cramp-like sensation.[Fr.H-n.]

On account of nausea and headache, she must go to bed on two afternoons. [Fr.H-n.]

45. Nausea by fits, for six successive days. [Fr.H-n.]

Sickness, morning (aft. 22 h.). and evening (aft. 9 h.). [Stf.]

Vomiting. [MORGENSTER, in Nova. Acta. Nat. Cur., iv, 1770. (All the symptoms referred to this author (wrongly given as “Morgenbesser”) are such as he has seen cured by Moschus (p. 239.) ]

It feels too tight about his scrobiculus cordis, with smarting burning feeling of soreness, everyday after dinner, for three successive days. [Fr.H-n.]

Stomachache. [MORGENSTERN, l. c.]

50. Feeling of fulness in the gastric region, increased by even moderate eating (aft. 3 h.). [Stf.]

Some pressure on the left side near the scrobiculus cordis. [Gss.]

In and above the scrobiculus cordis (in the chest) pain, particularly on inspiration, combined with anxiety in the chest (aft. 6 h.). [Gss.]

Tensive aching in the gastric region with some painfulness of the abdomen; the tensive aching extended after half an hour to the whole of the abdomen (aft. 1.1/2, 2 h.). [Stf.]

In the right side under the short ribs, fine, sharp, transient stitches, almost like fine pinching compelling him to rub. [Gss.]

55. Itching prick in the right side of the abdomen under the short ribs; the itching continues after the prick has gone and compels him to rub. [Gss.]

Single violent stitches in the umbilical region, deep in, especially when inspiring (aft. ½ h.). [Stf.]

Clutching together by jerks above the navel, that takes away his breath. [Stf.]

Pain in the umbilical region. [MORGEUSTERN, l. c.]

In the right side of the abdomen, below the navel simple pain. [Gss.]

60. She feels too tight in the abdomen, without pain, with anxiety; so that she cannot do any work nor remain in one place, but must run about; she ran to several of her acquaintances, but remained with none above a few minutes (immediately). [Fr.H-n.]

Loud rumbling without cessation in the abdomen, with flatulence sufferings; it ceases after a meal, and even while eating. [Gss.]

Diarrhoea. [MORGENSTERN, l. c.]

He has urging to evacuation of flatus and stool; the stool is natural; before but not with the latter, a little flatus is expelled. [Gss.]

Constipation for several days. [Fr.H-n.]

65. Formication at the orifice of the rectum, which goes off on rubbing. [gss.]

It seems to excite the sexual desire. [Gss.]

Excitation of the sexual desire. [VOGEL, Hist. Mat. Medorrhinum, p. 356. (Observations.) – PIDERIT, Pharm. Rat., p. 268. (General statement.) ]

Exalted sexual power in a weak old man. [WEICKHARD, Medorrhinum Pract. Handbuch, Heilbronn und Rothenb., 1798, 1799. (66, 67, 68 merely primary effects.) ]

Promotes the menses. [SCHROECK, l. c.]

70. Occurrence of the menses from the mere smell. [VOGEL, l. c. – TH BARTHOLIN, Epist. Medorrhinum, cent. ii, 87. (Observation of effect of odour.) ]

A drawing and forcing towards the genitals; feeling as if the menses were coming on (aft. 9, 22 h.). [Stf.]

The menses came six days too soon, and very profusely (aft. 5 d.). [Stf.]

Violent sneezing. [Gss.]

The nose which was previously stopped up with coryza becomes suddenly free after copious discharge by blowing it. [Gss.]

75. In the larynx a sensation like sulphur vapour, with constriction of the windpipe from the smell (immediately). [Stf.]

During inspiration, which is quite free, he has almost the sensation as if he had previously inhaled sulphur vapour. [Gss.]

In the upper part of the larynx a sudden feeling as if his breath would be stopped, almost like what occurs when sulphur vapour has been inhaled. [Gss.]

Suffocating constriction of the chest. [FR. HOFFMANN, Medorrhinum Rat. Syst., iii, p. 92. (General statement of effects of odour od “suaveolentia.”) ]

Tightness of breath; she must breath deeply. [Stf.]

80. Compression of the chest. (With the “fulness” of S. 82.) [TRALLES, l. c.]

In the left side, under the short ribs, tightness on breathing deeply. [Gss.]

Fulness in the chest. [TRALLES, l. c.]

In the side, at the short ribs, itching pinching. [Gss.]

In the left side, under the short ribs, intermittent obtuse stitches. [Gss.]

85. In the left half of the chest obtuse, intermittent stitches (aft. 28 h.). [Gss.]

In the left side, above the coccyx, in the sacrum, painful pressure, as with a blunt instrument. [Gss.]

Violent drawing in the back; she feels as if tightly bound there, as before the menses. [Stf.]

On the left, near the spine in the middle of the trunk, intermittent, obtuse stitches. [Gss.]

Drawing pressure in a muscle of the nape. [Gss.]

90. In the evening, after lying down in bed, there came a drawing and shooting in the left forearm, from the wrist to the elbow-joint, which prevented her going to sleep; she must put it of bed and move it up and down, in order to allay the pain, for half an hour (aft. 6 h.). [Stf.]

Squeezing pressure in the right forearm, just above the wrist. [Gss.]

Cramp-like drawing in the hands and fingers, as if cramp (tetanus) would come there. [Gss.]

In the left hand semi-obtuse shooting. [Gss.]

95. Paralytic drawing in the left thumb, as if cramp would come there. [Gss.]

In the left thumb paralytic twitching. [Gss.]

A kind of chilling burning in the distal joint of the right index. [Gss.]

In the distal phalanx of the left index an inward, simple pain; the finger trembles from it (immediately).

On the inner side of the left thigh paralytic twitching. [Gss.]

100. On the inner side of the left thigh sudden aching. [Gss.]

squeezing, obtuse pressure in the flesh of the right thigh on its posterior aspect, more towards the outer side. [Gss.]

Itching pricking, compelling rubbing, on the anterior side of the thigh. [Gss.]

Above the right knee sharp pinching. [Gss.]

On the outer side of the left thigh, nit far from the knee, simple aching with feeling of weakness. [Gss.]

105. On the left tibia sudden feeling of coldness. [Gss.]

On the outer side of the left thigh, not far from the knee, simple aching with feeling of weakness. [Gss.]

105. On the left tibia sudden feeling of coldness. [Gss.]

On the outer side of the let tibia, towards the calf, sharp itching, which is removed by rubbing. [Gss.]

A paralytic pain (painful powerlessness) extends downwards through the left leg, as if it would become stiff, when sitting. [Gss.]

Restlessness in the left leg, so that he must now draw it up, one extend it – a paralytic (stiff) feeling, that compels him to move the leg in order to obtain momentary ease. [Gss.]

When sitting he must constantly move the lower extremities, otherwise they feel quite weak, and he has a restlessness in them, as after a long walk. [Gss.]

110. If, when sitting, he holds the legs still, they threaten to go to sleep, a humming sensation. [Gss.]

If, when sitting, he draws his feet back, he feels in the legs, somewhat also in the thighs, a whirring (tingling) sensation, as if they were fatigued by a long journey, or as if they would go to sleep. [Gss.]

In the right little toe a squeezing, as if someone had trod on it. [Gss.]

Burning aching in the tips of the toes of the right foot. [Gss.]

Prickling aching in the tips of the toes of the right foot. [Gss.]

Prickling in all the muscles. [J. A. HEMANN, Medorrhinum Aufsatz, Berlin, 1778. (Not accessible) ]

115. Itching pinching and fine needle-pricks on various parts of the body, which compel rubbing. [Gss.]

(In venereal tetters, which generally kept quiet, a violent, intolerable burning.) [Fr.H-n.]

Haemorrhages. (The original is, “Sanguinis pellit.”) [PIDERIT, l. c.]

Bruised pain in the whole body. [Stf.]

He knows not what ails him, but there comes on sometimes a kind of discomfort, a slight faintness, which immediately passes off again. [Gss.]

120. Tetanus. [F. C. MEDICUS, Samml. v. Beobacht. A. d. Arzn., ii, pp. 605 – 618. (Observation. – The original simply has “stiffness of the body,” and the symptom occurred in a maniac.) ]

Convulsions. [FR. HOFFMANN, – MORGENSTERN, l. c.]

The most violent convulsions in women and men. [BOERHAAVE, de Morb. Nerv., p. 744. (General statement as to effects of odour. – Boerhaave says,”hypochonriacal hypochondriacal men.” )]

Hysterical sufferings. [SCHROECK, l. c. – SENNERT, Medorrhinum pr. Lib. 4, (Observation of effects of odour.) p. 125. – G. W. WEDEL, Amoen. Mat. Medorrhinum, p. 198. (Statement as to effects of “suaveolentia, moschata, et volatilia” generally.) – JAC. SYLVIUS, Meth. Medorrhinum C. et Simpl., I, cap. de Animalibus. (Observation of effects of odour. – All these observers add to :hysterical affections” – “in persons subject to them.”) ]

Hypochondriacs are affected by it. [WEDEL, l. c.]

125. Hysterical affections, even in males. (Should be – “even in a man:” i.e. the subject of the observation.) [RIEDLIN, (Musk was combined with ambra.) Lin. Medorrhinum, p. 856.]

Syncopes. [FR. HOFFMANN. – CARTHEUSER, l. c. – MEAD, Monita mwed., p. 123. (Observation.) – PELARGUS, (Musk in a pessary.) Obs., ii, p. 492. (Not accessible.) – FULLER, Pharm. Extemp., p. 302. (General statement of effects of odour.) ]

Syncope, followed by headache. [SCHROECK, l. c.]

When walking he does not feel any weakness, but when he sits down he immediately feels paralytic weakness in the knees, as from great loss of power and exhaustion. [Gss.]

Somnolence (coma) [TRALLES, l. c.]

130. Sleep. [CULLEN, Mat. Med., ii, p. 644. (Effects of large doses.) ]

Restless night; he dreams incessantly, dreams full of effort and exertion; he could not lie long on one place, for the part on which he lay pained as if dislocated or broken (aft. 24 h.). [Gss.]

Night full of vivid, defamatory dreams, in which everything goes wrong, and which make him very angry (aft. 48 h.).[Gss.]

He felt as if a cool wind suddenly blew on him, especially on the uncovered parts, particularly the hands. [Gss.]

When he went out into the open, not cold, air it felt cold to him, and he sought the heat of the stove (aft. 1.1/2 h.). [Gss.]

135. Slight shuddering on the hairy scalp, which spread in a less degree over the whole body (immediately). [Gss.]

Whilst his hands seemed to be of the natural heat the left felt warm, the right cold; to the face both felt cool (aft. 2 h.). [Gss.]

Pulse fuller, but from 4 to 5 beats slower (at. ¼ h.). [LOR. CRELL, in Baldingers’s Magaz., vii. St., p. 656. (Not found. (The volume specified has only 511 pages.) ]

The pulse is less full and much quicker, accelerated from 72 to 88 beats (aft. 6 h.). [Gss.]

No thirst either during the shivering or afterwards. [Gss.]

140. After the shivering comfortable feeling of natural warmth through the whole body (aft. 10 m.). [Gss.]

After the natural agreeable feeling of warmth a slight shiver again spreads from the head down through the body (aft. 15 m.). [Gss.]

Very much increased heat of the whole body, with copious perspiration and increased liveliness (immediately). [Stf.]

Heat. [SCHROECK, l. c. – LOESEKE, Mat. Medorrhinum, p. 529. (General statement.) – ROB. WHYTT, Works, p. 504. (Statement.) ]

Increases to the extremest degree the movement of the blood. [PIDERIT, l. c.]

145. When she got to bed (9 p.m.) burning heat on the whole body (the right side seemed the hotter), with dry feeling and scraping in throat and mouth and moderate thirst; bed was intolerable to her, she must lie uncovered; at the same time shooting (?) pain in the forehead, giddy before the eyes, bruised all over the body, sleepless, restless; she tossed about, felt a jerking clutching together above the navel, and a forcing down to the genitals with extreme crossness; the attack lasted an hour (aft. 9 h.) [Stf.]

Every morning slight perspiration.

Perspration. [PIDERT – CULLEN, l. c.]

Slight transpiration. [WALL, in Philosoph. Trans., No. 474. (In the original,”a universal breathing sweat.”) ]

Sweat without heat. [RELL, Erkenntniss und Kur d. Fieb., iv, p. 174. (Not found.) ]

150. Palpitation of the heart, as from anxious expectation (aft. 4 h.). [Stf.]

Great anxiety. [FR. HOFFMANN,- CARTHEUSER, l. c., p. 380.]

Cross (the first hours). [Stf.]

Samuel Hahnemann
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) was the founder of Homoeopathy. He is called the Father of Experimental Pharmacology because he was the first physician to prepare medicines in a specialized way; proving them on healthy human beings, to determine how the medicines acted to cure diseases.

Hahnemann's three major publications chart the development of homeopathy. In the Organon of Medicine, we see the fundamentals laid out. Materia Medica Pura records the exact symptoms of the remedy provings. In his book, The Chronic Diseases, Their Peculiar Nature and Their Homoeopathic Cure, he showed us how natural diseases become chronic in nature when suppressed by improper treatment.