Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Genital Organs


THE special diseases to which women are subjected are almost entirely confined to their genital organs. Hence a through knowledge of their anatomy and physiology is indispensable for their full understanding….


(Pertaining to the bladder and womb.) pouch is usually an empty line. The womb is a hollow, thick-walled small organ, shaped like a pear ‘ it is triangular from side to side and flattened from before backwards. The adult virgin womb weighs about 1 plus ounces; it is about three inches long, two inches wide and one inch thick. It consists of two portions, of a body or corpus and of a neck or cervix. The walls of the womb are so thick (about half an inch) that its cavity consists only of a slit. This cavity is triangular in shape; its apex pointing downwards. The cavity of the womb communicates with the peritoneal cavity through the Fallopian tubes and with the vagina through the cervix. This direct communication between the exterior and the peritoneal cavity is responsible for the spreading upwards sometimes of fatally ending infections, due with to sepsis or to gonorrhoea. The interior disorders are explained in the next chapter.

THE special diseases to which women are subjected are almost entirely confined to their genital organs. Hence a through knowledge of their anatomy and physiology is indispensable for their full understanding.

A. ANATOMY.

For practical reasons we differentiate between the internal organs (womb, Fallopian tubes, ovaries and vagina) and the external organs, commonly termed vulva (labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, hymen, vulvovaginal glands and mons veneris).

The womb is the central organ, it lies below the level of the pelvic (* The bony basin of the trunk.*) brim, between the bladder and the rectum, (Plus The lower part of the large intestine.) its axis being directed forwards; as a rule it shows a slight rotation to the right, that means its left edge is nearer to the front of the pelvis than its right edge. Viewed from above, therefore, one can only see its fundus and posterior surface. The anterior surface touches the bladder, so that the vesicouterine ((++) Pertaining to the bladder and womb.) pouch is usually an empty line.

The womb is a hollow, thick-walled small organ, shaped like a pear ‘ it is triangular from side to side and flattened from before backwards.

The adult virgin womb weighs about 1 plus ounces; it is about three inches long, two inches wide and one inch thick. It consists of two portions, of a body or corpus and of a neck or cervix.

The walls of the womb are so thick (about half an inch) that its cavity consists only of a slit.

This cavity is triangular in shape; its apex pointing downwards. The cavity of the womb communicates with the peritoneal cavity through the Fallopian tubes and with the vagina through the cervix. This direct communication between the exterior and the peritoneal cavity is responsible for the spreading upwards sometimes of fatally ending infections, due with to sepsis or to gonorrhoea.

The interior surface of the womb is lines with a mucous membrane which is continuous with the Fallopian tubes and the vagina. The mucous membrane becomes ciliated near the orifices, it contains numerous tube-like glands, discharging a clear, viscid alkaline liquid. The walls of the womb consists mostly of involuntary muscle fibres, running in all directions, with numerous blood- vessels, lymphatics and nerves between them.

The lower part of the cervix projects, as above mentioned, into the vagina and is the called the vaginal cervix or portio vaginalis, while the upper part of the womb’s neck, which lies above the attachment of the cervix to the vagina, is called the supra-vaginal cervix or portio supravaginalis. The vaginal cervix in the virgin state is somewhat cone-shaped, its external opening being small and rounded on its apex which points downwards and backwards. After pregnancy this external opening becomes a transverse slit with definite anterior and posterior lips of the cervix.

The body of the womb is almost completely covered with peritoneum, (Serous membrane lining the abdomen) but its sides are partly uncovered; so is the cervix at the front, whilst its back is completely covered by the peritoneum, forming part of the pouch of Douglas (the cavity between womb and rectum).

The abdominal peritoneum which passes down the anterior abdominal wall on to the bladder, forms a fold between the bladder wall on to the bladder, forms a fold between the bladder and the womb, called the utero-vesical pouch. This pouch is bounded laterally by two distinct thickenings, called the utero- vesical ligaments.

On each side of the womb are the broad ligaments, passing outwards to the side of the pelvis, the utero-sacral ligament, passing to the sacral bone and the round ligaments, uniting the womb to the front of the abdomen and holding the womb up in its place.

Wilhelm Karo
Wilhelm Karo MD, homeopath circa mid-20th century, author of the following books - Homeopathy in Women's Diseases; Diseases of the Male Genital Organs; Urinary and prostatic troubles - enlargement of the prostate; Rheumatism; Selected Help in Diseases of the Respiratory System, Chest, etc; Selected Help in Children's Diseases; Diseases of the skin.