There is another tip about the Sulphur kids which I have sometimes found useful, and that is that they have an astonishing money sense; quite a small child has a very definite sense of values. .

“For severe aggravation of Sulphur is there any one drug to antidote it?”.

I think the most common antidote drug for Sulphur is Belladonna, but it depends entirely what the condition is.

“Is Sulphur often indicated for urticaria in children?”.

Not nearly so often indicated as it is used. But it is very commonly indicated in urticaria in children, particularly if associated with digestive upset.

“What is the best potency for children?”.

Children respond awfully well to any potency, and most Sulphur children respond perfectly well to a 30 or 2000.

“Is Pulsatilla lethargic?”.

Yes, the heavy Pulsatilla is. The heavy Pulsatilla child is the child who is liable to go on to Sulphur. The finer Pulsatilla child is much more liable to become chilly and go on to Silica or Phosphorus.

“Can you mask symptoms with a homoeopathic drug?”.

Yes, you can. For example, where you have got a case that has been exposed to cold and comes down with pretty indefinite symptoms, you dont know what is developing, you can quieten it down with Aconite but they dont clear, and you know you have only modified it and you wonder what is going to happen in the next twenty-four hours. If you push in a dose of Sulphur the child is well next day.

Often you are liable to get mild bronchitis developing, and it is jolly difficult to prescribe for if you have modified it with your Aconite and left it there, and you have got very little indication for anything else.

NO. 5.

WELL, I think we cleared Sulphur out of the way last week, and we get back to our Pulsatilla type of drugs. And, although the majority of these that I am looking at are hot-blooded drugs, there is one other that you have got always to associate with Pulsatilla, and that is THUJA, although it is chilly in its reactions.

I think it is a little difficult to give you a mental picture of the typical Thuja child, although I can remember lots of them coming up to out-patients, and I think the real reason why it is so difficult to get a picture of them is that in the majority of outstanding Thuja cases there has bene an element of mental deficiency.

I have seen quite a lot of Thuja patients, Thuja children, where there has been mental deficiency, some merely backward, some actually deficient; I have seen quite lot in whom there is an obvious pituitary disfunction, and I think that tends to colour ones idea of Thuja. But you will get Thuja children who are not mentally defective, and who have not got a pituitary disfunction, and that type of child is very like a Pulsatilla child in reaction.

I think the outstanding characteristic of the Thuja child is the fact that it is sensitive, sensitive to people, it is responsive to any kindness, it is conscientious in what it does, and it is easily upset emotionally. And there your first strong indication Thuja indication comes in: the Thuja children have a peculiar sensitiveness to music.

It is one of the things that one commonly associates with the mentally defective child, I think; certainly 80 per cent. of the mentally defective children that I have had to do with have been abnormally sensitive to music; I mean much more sensitive than the average child and even in the normal child with Thuja indications you will get this emotional sensitiveness to music. They are affected by it; they may even weep from it.

Then, associated with that emotional disturbance, you do meet Thuja kids who have a sadness, a depression, which is very like a Pulsatilla depression, that is to say they are sad, they are easily upset, and if upset they weep very much as a Pulsatilla child does.

Then there is another symptom which always makes me think of the Thuja child, and that is a strange contradiction that you often come across with a perfectly lively, active child, apparently keenly interested, and yet they have a strange hesitation in speaking, very often a difficulty in finding the words they want, or a difficulty in saying them.

And very often that difficult in speaking gives you the impression that the child is slow mentally, when it isnt really slow, it is really hunting for words. And you may get that going on a little farther and you get some of these Thuja children who have a definite disinclination to talk, they are rather silent, and they appear to be rather heavy.

Then, as far as appearance goes, I think the majority of the Thuja children are rather under than above the average height, many of them are definitely small and rather finely built. I think I have seen as many fair-haired as dark-haired Thuja children, and it seems to apply equally well to either type.

There is one thing that is pretty definite about them, and that is that they appear to get wakened up, alive, the more active they are. If they are made to sit about they get dull, heavy, apt to get depressed, but any activity seems to brighten them up mentally.

Then, another common feature that you meet with in many of these Thuja children is a very faulty development of the teeth. You get rather irregular dentition, and you get very early decay. The enamel of the teeth is definitely faulty in places.

Then, all these Thuja children are sensitive to cold, and yet they are mostly better in the open air. They are very sensitive to damp, and they are liable to be much worse in the mornings. Then I have never seen a Thuja child that didnt perspire on exertion, and even when they are not exerting themselves they mostly have a rather greasy skin. I think probably the greasy skin of the

Thuja child is more commonly noticed, at least I have noticed it more commonly, in the dark-haired type than in the fair; I have seen quite a lot of fair-haired Thuja children who had a rather fine skin, and very often a downy growth on the skin, particularly on the back.

Then the next thing is that these Thuja children dont stand up to mental stress well. They are very liable to get a typical acute neuralgic headache under stress, from getting over-tired or over-excited, and the point about the neuralgic headache in the Thuja child is that it very often picks out definite areas which are extremely painful and very often extremely sensitive.

And with that you can always tack on the other symptom, which is that the Thuja kids are very liable to get chronic catarrhs; they get a thick, purulent, yellowish-green nasal discharge; they are liable to get crusts in the nose; they may get bleeding. They are liable to get a chronic otitis media, and with their otitis media they are very liable to run to a mastoid, again with the very severe and localized pain, and tenderness over the mastoid; if they are old enough they will tell you it feels as if something were being bored into the mastoid region.

Then another common feature in these Thuja children is that they have a poor digestion. You know the typical picture of the pituitary child with the almost pendulous abdomen well, that is the extreme case, but you get all degrees up to that, and these Thuja kids are very, very liable to run a chronically irritated caecum, you very often find a full, boggy caecum in the right iliac fossa, and with that you usually get a history or recurring attacks of diarrhoea, and the Thuja diarrhoea is fairly characteristic . It consists of pale, greasy, almost fatty stools, and they are always passed with a good deal of flatus. And the diarrhoea attacks are accompanied by a lot of gurgling in the abdomen.

Then, of course, as you would expect, these Thuja kids in a great many instances will give you a history of having had crops of warts, or they may actually have them when you see them. The point about the Thuja warts is that they are soft, and they bleed very easily on handling; if they are knocked they are liable to have their surface broken and bleed.

Then you remember the point that is always made in the Materia Medica about the Thuja patient sweating on the uncovered parts. Well, that is perfectly true. I remember seeing a girl of round about twelve years of age, and she was stripped to be overhauled, and the sweat simply poured off her when her clothes were taken off; and she wasnt sweating at all when covered up: so you do occasionally come across that odd symptom of sweating when uncovering, although mostly the Thuja children are chilly and are shivery when they are uncovered.

As a matter of fact that particular case was rather interesting because she was one of these rare bony deposits in the muscles in quite a young child, and she did very well on Thuja. We had her in here for some time just before the war, and the first thing that put us on to the possibility of Thuja was that odd sweating when uncovered.

And then the other thing you get pretty constantly with Thuja children is their strange susceptibility to onions. They are very liable to get a gastric upset, an attack of diarrhoea, from onions, cooked or in any form you like. And there is one other common Thuja symptom, although you dont meet it in the young children you meet it in the adolescent, and that is they are liable to get acute digestive upsets from tea.

Then, of course, if you get a vaccination history it is a great help to you.

I think that more or less covers the general outline of Thuja. It is a little difficult to disentangle the acutely pathological patient from just the average Thuja in individual.

Well, the next drug that comes into that crowd is Silica, of course, but we have dealt with it already. It is again chilly, of course.

Well, to get back to the warm-blooded drugs, I think the next common one is BROMINE.

I think Bromine is one of the drugs which is very frequently missed. I know I missed it for years after I started practising Homoeopathy and was astonished when I did discover it to realize how many patients I should have given Bromine to and hadnt done it. I think the common Bromine type of patient is usually over- fat. The majority of the cases I have seen have been in fair- skinned, fair-haired people, and the majority of them have been friendly, cheerful, fairly happy types.

And then you begin to get your contradictions. You have got your fairly cheerful, happy, friendly type, and yet they are very easily put out, and if they are upset they very commonly flush up, and if you get them to explain what happens they say they get a feeling of heat and tension in their heads.

Then the next thing about them is that they are very liable to become nervous, anxious, very often frightened, in the evening very much about the Pulsatilla time. They dont like to walk home in the dark, they are very liable to have the impression that somebody is following them and they get scared very much like the symptom that Pulsatilla gives you they look not unlike Pulsatilla, and you will occasionally get patches of depression in the Bromine patient which again are not unlike the Pulsatilla. But I think in Bromine you are much more likely to come across more placid depression, much more a melancholy outlook than the acute tearfulness of the Pulsatilla.

Then the next thing that I have come to associate with the Bromine patient is in that rather fat, fair type they tend to run to crops of boils, either acne about the face or over the shoulders, in fact I dont think I have ever prescribed Bromine for an adolescent who hadnt some acne spots about.

Then you get more of the symptoms which again are very like pulsatilla. They are very sensitive to heat, they are uncomfortable in the sun, they are definitely uncomfortable in a hot room. They are definitely better for motion, and they are better for exercise. They are better in the open air. And then you get your first contradiction; the typical Bromine patient is very much better after food, whereas the typical Pulsatilla patient is heavy after a meal. Then you get another contradiction; in spit of the fact that they are better in the open air, they are sensitive to draughts.

Then I think the majority of the Bromine cases I have seen have been of two types, either the chronic catarrh of the upper passages, or the typical acute hay fevers.

And if you take the catarrhal type first you will get either the child with the chronic hypertrophy of the tonsils, and they are not the types who run to recurring quinsies, it is the enlarged fibrotic tonsil, very often with pretty general enlargement of the submaxillary glands, which again tend to be hard, they dont tend to break down. And with the chronic tonsils they are very liable to get acute attacks of catarrhal extension to any of the sinuses, and I think in Bromine more commonly you get the frontal sinuses involved, rather than the antrums, and with the involvement of the frontal sinuses you get the patients complaining of intense pain, fullness, feeling of swelling at the root, of the nose.

The nose feels choked up, and what discharge there is is a thick, yellow, purulent discharge, and if they make violent efforts to clear the nose it is liable to be bloodstained. Then there is another point about that type of case, which is that you are very apt to get what they used to describe to us as a strumous upper lip, in other words a thickened, rather inflamed, reddened upper lip. Well, that is I think the commonest type of case that you will come across requiring Bromine.

You will occasionally get one of these tonsil children getting attacks of very intense croup. And the feeling, the sensation, they get is a sensation of tickling in the larynx; they have a very violent croupy cough, which goes on almost to suffocation, and which is relieved by cold drinks. And they very often complain of a feeling of pressure, or constriction, of the throat, and the larynx in these Bromine cases is usually very sensitive to touch. And associated with that, you very often get in fact you get it independently of their croupy attacks, you get it in children with hypertrophied tonsils quite apart from laryngeal infection you get the typical Bromine hoarse voice.

Then the other thing that you quite frequently require Bromine for is the typical hay fever in this type of child. You have got the fact, warm-blooded child, with rather hypertrophied tonsils, who gets an attack of hay fever coming on some time usually about June, it is usually rather later in the Bromine child than it is in many of the others. You get many of them starting in the middle of May; Bromine does not usually start till June. And there is one outstanding characteristic of the Bromine hay fever, and that is that they have got such an extreme hyperaesthesia of their mucous membranes that any dust, no matter what it is, will set up an acute attack during the irritant period.

I remember one small boy who had a typical Bromine hay fever, and if he went into the room in which they were dusting during the day it would set up a violent attack right away, quite apart from any exposure to irritant out of doors; and incidentally a few doses of Bromine hay fevers is that you are liable to get asthmatic attacks with it. And the asthmatic attacks that they get are fairly typical. They are liable to get very sudden spasmodic attacks with a sensation of extreme constriction of the chest, and in the attacks there is liable to be extreme difficulty in swallowing. And the other point about them is that even though their apparent hay fever doesnt entirely subside at the sea their asthma entirely goes.

Well, I think that is the commonest type of Bromine child, and, as I say, it is one that I used to miss a lot.

There is another in which I found Bromine very useful, and that is the same type of child, the fat, tonsillar child, again sensitive to heat, with a definitely sluggish tendency; but, in addition, they tend to get generalized rheumatic pains, sort of muscular rheumatism. And with that they are very liable to get cardiac affections.

It is much more likely to be a poorly acting cardiac muscle then a definite valvular lesion in Bromine, but I have seen several cases now in which there was definite cardiac hypertrophy in that type of child who have improved very much indeed on Bromine, and the constant in all these cases has again been that feeling of constriction in the chest, feeling of tightness or constriction over the heart. And the other constant has been that that feeling of constriction has been very liable to develop when they have been facing any wind at all; you can tack that on to the sensitiveness to draughts; but it has been particularly noticeable in these Bromine hearts.

“In the mentally deficient type of Thuja child have you found the type of delusions that you get in adults.

Not as a rule; I have merely noticed the music sensitiveness as the marked characteristic. There is one thing about the Thuja kids, even the mentally defectives, they are astonishingly conscientious. There is one other Thuja symptom I have often come across that I didnt mention; they are very often sensitive to motion, they are car-sick, very often. I remember one little boy who was certainly backward, and he used to come up to see me from the country, and always was sick on the way up until he got his Thuja.

I want to try to finish these hot-blooded drugs to-day, and you reminded me that I had not taken up Fluoric acid, but I think I will go on with Iodine first because it is such a useful contrast to Bromine and has so many of the same reactions, and I think Fluoric acid follows Iodine better than coming immediately after Bromine.

The majority of the IODINE children I have seen have been dark haired and rather dark skinned children, and the first thing that always strikes me about them is their intense restlessness. You get a dark haired, very thin child brought in to see you and you will find he is never still at all, moving about the room, wandering about, fidgeting, restless; it is one of the first things you notice.

Then I think the next thing about them is the thing that comes out on your questioning; you will be told that mostly these children are definitely irritable, and their irritability is pretty characteristic; they will go along perfectly happily, playing with others kids and they will suddenly, apparently for no reason, break out into violence; very often they are playing perfectly happily with a brother or sister and they suddenly pick up something and smite them. It is that sudden, impulsive irritability that is the typical Iodine mental characteristic. Then you very often find that after an attack of irritability like that the kid is horribly depressed, not weepy but just silent, depressed, rather losing interest in things.

Then the next thing that you will get from the parents mostly is that these kids almost always have inordinate appetites; they are hungry for their meals, and they are hungry between meals. They get absolutely exhausted if they go too long without a meal, and are very liable to get hungry headaches.

Then all these Iodine children are very sensitive to heat, and it is heat of any kind, hot rooms, hot sun, hot fire, hot baths, heat in any form aggravates the typical Iodine child.

Then you practically always get a history that these children are eating well and yet they cant ever be fattened, they remain thin, they may actually be losing weight.

And very often you will get in these Iodine children a rather inactive skin. They are very liable to get attacks of acute infection of their nose, with a tendency to spread into the frontal sinuses, and if they get such an attack they will get an irritant, watery discharge, a feeling of obstruction at the root of the nose; very often there is actual swelling at the root of the nose, and it is tender on pressure.

And very often with that coryza you will get a very hot discharge, a tendency to sneeze, and with the discharge you always get very watery eyes. You very commonly get a history of repeated attacks of that sort, and then following one of these attacks a development of typical asthmatic breathing; and if you get one of these thin children with a good appetite, with that sort of history, and the asthma is definitely better in the open air, you can very often clear it off with Iodine.

D M Borland