Through and over the sympathetic or automatic nervous system. Every cell, every tissue every organ, and every part of thee body is connected with other cells, tissues and organs through a complex nervous system. The sympathetic or automatic system is one branch of this grand system of nerve fibers, cells and plexuses. All thoughts and sensations are transmitted to the consciousness over and through the cerebrospinal system, but emotions conducted to the consciousness over thee sympathetic nervous system, and the nature of the emotion determines the effect it has on the body, either constructive or destructive.

Which emotions are constructive and which destructive?

Such emotions as love, faith, happiness, and good will are constructive and have a beneficial influence upon the harmonious functional activity of every cell, tissue and structure of the body. Emotions such as fear, worry, resentment, criticism, envy, anger, jealousy and hatred are destructive and interfere with thee normal functional activity of the body and may cause ill health and disease.

What is the main difference between ill health and disease?

The main difference is that ill health or sickness is a condition in which an irritant may cause a derangement of the normal functioning of an organ or apart of the body without any actual changes in the structure of the organ or the part affected. A disease, on thee other hand, is a condition in which actual changes take place in the cellular structure of the diseased part of the body, such as cancer, tuberculosis, arthritis, peptic or duodenal ulcer, etc. Hence the main difference is largely a matter of degrees; a person may feel ill and miserable and yet no disease can bee discovered or demonstrated even under very careful physical examination.

What is thee difference between acute and chronic disease?

An acute disease is one that comes on suddenly, runs a certain course and results in either restoration to health or in death. A chronic disease is in reality an uncured acute disease, or a condition in which irritating cause continues actively in the body, not strong enough to produce acute symptoms but it leaves the patient in a state of semi- invalidism.

What is an infectious disease?

An infectious disease is one in which the cause consists of a toxin or poison, usually bacterial toxins, generated within the body and absorbed into the blood stream. Thee reaction of the body to the poisons will cause increase in temperature, accelerated pulse and respiration, and m, any other symptoms depending upon the nature of the disease and the part of the body affected.

What is medicine?

Medicine is a substance supposed to contain an element or elements having a definite relation to the symptoms of a disease, either that of suppressing the symptoms or relieving or “curing” them.

By what mean does the body recognize the nature of the medicine taken?

By a reflex nerve action. Unless the medicine acts chemically its nature is not recognized by a reflex action of the various system. The sensory nerve endings within the mouth, stomach and intestines react the irritation of the substance taken and send a message over sensory nerves to nerve cells in the spine. These centres will recognize the nature of the medicine by the degree of its irritation and return a message over motor nerves to the organs and parts affected, and these will react to the medicine according to the degree of irritation sustained by the nerve centres. Food and neutral drinks cause a slight stimulation of the digestive glands in the alimentary tract which may bring on a feeling of satisfaction and general comfort but do not cause a marked reflex action on the part of the organs.

How do drugs and medicines act upon the body?

They act either chemically, psychologically or dynamically.

How do drugs and medicines act chemically?

Drugs and medicines act chemically when they cause chemical changes with in the cavities or tubes of thee body, or in the blood stream. This action may consist of changing the chemical content of the stomach or any other cavity from acid to alkaline or vice versa or it may act antiseptically on bacteria in the tubes of the body or in the blood stream. If the drug is very strong and irritating it may cause destruction of tissue and even death.

How do drugs and medicines act physiologically?

They act physiologically by causing a reflex nerve action within the body. In reality the drug does not act on the body but the body reacts to the drug taken. If the drug is only mildly irritating or so-called stimulating to the sensory nerve endings with in the stomach and intestines, the reaction will cause an increased functional activity of the organs or parts affected. This reaction is illustrated by that class of medicines called laxatives nd tonics. On the other hand, if the irritation is serve enough to partly inhabit the sensation to reach the nerve cells in the spine or the consciousness, the functional activity to the organ or parts affected will be decreased. Such drugs are usually called sedatives and taken to reduce overactive organs or to relieve pain, general nervousness, and to induce sleep. If the irritation to the sensory nerves is severe enough to prohibit all sensation to reach the consciousness, all conscious functional activity may be suspended. This class of drugs is called narcotics and anesthetics, and are employed when all conscious sensation and activity need to be suspended.

How do medicines act dynamically?

Medicines act dynamically on the diseased energy emanating from a diseased process with in the body; they act only when the potential drug energy has been liberated from its bonds and by a process of mechanical operations forced into an inert-media or vehicle.

Do all drugs and medicines contain potential drug energy or power?

Yes, of course. If you will refer to the first lesson in which we discussed matter and energy you will remember that all physical matter is basically primary energy and that all matter contain latent energy. Applying this principle to the subjects of drugs and medicine it is self-evident that these substances contain latent energies which can be brought out and liberated by special processes. Illustration: Steam is obtained by boiling water, and steam under pressure develops an energy that will derive engines and pull trains; but the same quantity of water(without boiling)put into a steam cylinder would generate no power at all; it is the liberated energy in the water that manifests the power; and not thee water itself.

Does the energy in drugs and medicines vary in quality and nature?

Yes, it does. We know that no two drugs or medicines are exactly alike or cause the same reaction in the body; this is due to the fact that the combination of basic elements are not the same in any two medicinal substances. Each and every one acts according to its own nature and quality, and for this reason elicits different reactions in the body. Basically they are all composed of the same primary energy but the nature and quality of this energy are changed but the nature and quality of this energy are changed in accordance with the nature of the creative impulse or idea that formed the substance, whether it is inorganic or organic in nature. Naturally all drug and medicinal substances are irritating and antagonistic to the harmonious activity of he life force of he body; they are more or less poisonous.

How are drugs and medicines classified?

Into several classes and sub-classes according to the nature of the drug and reaction it causes on thee body, such as alkalies, acids, antiacids, antipyretic, antiseptics, antispasmodic, and a great number of smaller sub- classifications.

What is understood by crude drugs?

Crude drugs are medicinal substances used in their full physiological drug strength, without any dilution.

What is understood by the term medicine?

Medicine is made from crude drugs have been diluted and may contain several medicinal ingredients in one compound.

What is understood by potentized medicine?

Potentized medicine is medicinal substance in which thee crude drug elements have been eliminated by a process of medicinal dilutions and breaking up of the crude drug substance e until the potential energy of thee medicine has been liberated and by a mechanical process forced into a new medica.

What is the main difference in medicinal action between crude drugs and potentized medicine?

The main difference is that crude drugs act either chemically or physiologically through reaction of the nervous system; while potentized medicine acts dynamically on the energy emanating from the diseased process within the body.

Have all drugs and medicines, including potentized medicine, thee power to derange or disturb human health?

Yes, they have, when taken in definite doses, at definite times, and over a definite period of time. Of course, there is a different in susceptibility to medicine. Sensitive human beings will respond very readily and manifest symptoms of ill health, while stronger and lees sensitive persons may take medicine for a long time without any perceptible manifestation of symptoms.

How does this statement agree with the fact that a patient suffering from pain of other symptoms may take a sedative or other medicines over a long period without manifesting apparent drug symptoms?

In this way, that when a disease is active in the body of thee nervous system is already so irritated by the disease process that it does not always take cognizance of a drug irritant of a lesser irritating quality. Of course, if the sedative is strong enough to cause the nerves to react it, it may relieve pain for a time, but in the measure the reflex action becomes exhausted; the nerves will again react to the pain or the disease. In this way a battle is going on within the body between the diseased process and the drug reaction, hence no definite drug symptoms can be obtained; but if this is prolonged over an extensive period thee vitality of the patient will become exhausted and he will suffer from the battle between the disease and the drugs taken.

If drugs and medicine have the power to derange human health why are they given to sick people with the object of restoring health or curing disease?

Primarily, because of old inherent instinct in the human mind that the Creator has provided healing substances in nature for ills that human flesh may be heir to. From this instinctive impulse, primitive as well as civilized people have tried to find some substances in plants, in herbs, or other physical substances that may have the power to relieve pain and cure disease; and from this idea our present knowledge of the therapeutic value of medicine developed.

Basic principles of homoeopathy, proving of drugs and medicines, Hahnemann’s studies and discoveries of the homoeopathic principles in medicine.

What is homoeopathy?

Homoeopathy is a system of internal medicine or medicinal therapeutic, based on the principle “similia similibus curantur”- like cures like.

What does that statement actually mean?

It means that a medicine or a remedy to bee curative to a disease, or a state of ill health, must be similar in medicinal nature and therapeutic range of action to the disease, as it is manifested in the patient by the symptoms present. In other words, the medicine in its proving on well people must have brought out or produced symptoms similar to those of which the patient complains. This includes all the symptoms, both the objective and subjective; but from thee standpoint of prescribing the correct remedy, the subject symptoms are more important because they represent the individual reaction of the disease process within the body.

How has the principle of similia similibus curantur discovered?

By testing or proving drugs and medicines on well peoples.]

What does that imply – to test or prove medicines on well people?

It means that a drug or a medicine is administrated to a group of well people until symptoms of ill health and disease appear in these people. It also implies that drugs and medicines possess power to derange, upset and disrupt normal, healthy activities of the body, when given in definite doses, at definite intervals, and over a definite period of time.

How is testing or proving medicines on well people conducted and carried out?

When a physician or a group of physicians decide to prove or test the medicinal qualities and the therapeutic range of a medicine, the first thing they do is top select a group of people willing to volunteer as provers or “guinea pigs” for the test. The provers are healthy men and women, as healthy as can be obtained in a community, and quite often physicians and their friends volunteer for this scientific work.

The provers are given a careful physical examination, and the individual sensitiveness and idiosyncrasies carefully noted. The medicine to be proven is carefully prepared, and each prover is given a definite dose to be take at definite intervals and over as a definite period of time; in the meantime the provers are advised to continue in their usual occupations, and habits of eating and living.

They are also instructed to make careful notes of all sensations or feelings, or changes from the normal functions of the various organs and part of the body. These changes and symptoms are to be carefully written down on paper and the nature of the changes and the degree of the disturbed functions, as well as the time of the day or night; and the conditions under which the symptoms appeared are noted. Also how the changes and symptoms are affected by heat or cold, eating and drinking, or anything else that pertains to the usual habits of the provers. For a few hours or days nothing may happen, but some provers develop symptoms very early- even after a few hours, depending on the nature of he medicine and the sensitiveness of the prover. The less sensitive ones may not note any changes or symptoms for days or weeks, but eventually they, too, will become affected. Headaches of various degrees and severity may develop, or facial neuralgia or toothache, or sore throat with congestion, swelling and pain. The respiratory system may become congested, with cough and pain in the chest; or symptoms of a cold, including discharges from the nose and other symptoms connected with a cold. The heat may become affected; there may be pain and either rapid or slow pulse with difficulty in breathing with many other heart symptoms. Thee digestive system may become upset; there may be indigestion, belching, distension or pain in the stomach, or their may be fermentation, sour stomach, heartburn, and the appetite may be increased or decreased. The bowel function may become changed, either constipation or diarrhoea, with colic and unusual amount of flatus or gas. The sex function in both male and female may become altered, and the menstrual function may be seriously affected. In the bony frame of the body there may develop pain and the joints may become stiff, sore and swollen; and the muscles in various parts of the body may becomes painful and rheumatic. The temperature of the body may change, and fever may develop,, particularly in those who manifest severe symptoms of the respiratory system.

The nervous system may become affected and symptoms of neuralgia or neuritis may develop, with many other nerve symptoms. The emotions may be profoundly affected, and symptoms of fear, depression, irritability, poor memory and weeping. In fact, the provers may become very ill and develop symptoms and changes of the normal functioning from the crown of the head to the soles of the feet. It must also be borne in mind that some medicines have particular affinity for certain organs and parts of the body; hence more severe changes and marked symptoms will appear in some organs and not in others.

The provers are also instructed to the physicians in charge of the provings, who checks the physical condition of the provers very carefully, including urinary tests, blood tests, and other laboratory tests if so deemed necessary. The checking and rechecking of provers, their symptoms and conditions, are continued as long as symptoms develop. Of course, the proving is not carried to the point where actual structural changes take place in the organs of the prover, and if he is particularly sensitive and develops marked disturbances of health, the proving is discontinued and an antidotal medicine is administered.

After the proving have been finished, thee physical findings and symptoms reported by the provers are carefully examined, checked, evaluated, classified and grouped according to the part of the body affected and the degree of severity of the symptoms obtained. The result of this work is put together in a systematic order, and from these provings the bulk of the homoeopathic materia medica is made.

Who discovered this method of proving medicine?

Doctor Samuel Hahnemann. He made the first provings on himself and the later his physician students and followers participated in the work.

Who was Doctor Hahnemann?

A scholarly, independent and progressive physician, living and practicing medicine in Germany during the later part of the eighteenth century, and in Paris, during the first part of the ninetieth century.

What induced Doctor Hahnemann to test and prove medicines in this manner?

Samuel Hahnemann was an unusually brilliant student, a deep thinker and investigator of scientific problems. When 12 years of age he was appointed quiz master of in Greek to a class of pupils by the headmaster of a school in which Hahnemann himself was a student. He had mastered several languages early in life, and when a student at the University of Leipsic he supported himself by translating English into German, and as tutor for other students. At the University he majored in chemistry and became known for his remarkable knowledge of this subject; and later revised and improved the German pharmacopoeia.

He studied medicine at Vienna and elsewhere, and after obtaining his medical diploma started to practice medicine in a small town in Saxony, Germany.

He evidently became disillusioned with the system of medicine in vogue and so tried to experiment and improve upon his medical practice and to develop a better use of the medicines. At this time he was translating “Cullen’s” materia medica from English and became particularly interested in what Cullen said about the use of cinchona bark in the treatment of chills and fever. The Spanish sailors brought this bark from Peru with a tale of its wonderful curative properties in a disease we call malaria, but was then called chills and fever.

Hahnemann obtained some of this bark and made an infusion of it. He took several doses a day of this infusion and was said to have developed fever and temperature, but no chills. However, this experiment gave Hahnemann a new idea in medicine and he continued to prove not only cinchona bark but many other medicines on himself and his physician friends. After this discovery he moved to Leipsic and became connected with the University as a professor of medicine and taught his newly discovered principle of “similia similibus curantur”.

Did Samuel Hahnemann actually discover the principle of similia or was this principle known before Hahnemann’s time?

Yes, the principle of similia similibus curantur was taught by the Greek scholar and philosopher Hippocrates, called the father of medicine. With Hahnemann’s knowledge of the Greek language it is fair to suppose that he was familiar with the writing of Hippocrates and the principle of similia; but it belonged to Samuel Hahnemann to make a practical and scientific application of this principle in medicine.

Have any provings been made since Hahnemann’s time?

Yes, many, provings of re-provings of medicine and remedies have been made since Hahnemann’s time, but the bulk of the provings were made by Hahnemann, his students and associate physicians. The last proving I know of was made in Brooklyn, N.Y., during the spring of 1897, by Doctors Walter M. James and Fincke; they proved X-rays in the sixth centesimal potency.

Have crude drugs and medicines been used in all provings, or have potentized medicines also been used?

No, all provings have not been made with crude drugs and medicine. The early provings of Hahnemann and his students were naturally made with crude drugs and medicines, but as they advanced in the study of the subject they used dilutions and potencies in provings.

Have potentized medicines the power of derange, upset or disrupt the normal functional activity of the body and cause symptoms of disease?

Yes, potentized medicines have the power to disturb human health and to bring out deep and long-lasting symptoms on the provers. Natrum mur or sodium chloride was proven by the Austrian Provers Union at Vienna some times in the nineteenth century, in the thirtieth centesimal potency. These provers obtained better, clear-cut and long-lasting symptoms from this medicine in the thirtieth than in the lower potencies from the earlier provings.

When Doctors James and Fincke proved the X-rays in 1897 in thee sixth centesimal potency, this potency caused deep- acting and long-lasting symptoms in some of the provers. In fact, so severe were the symptoms that it took years for some of the provers to overcome the effects the provings. However, it is self-evident that as long as high and still higher potencies the potential energy to cure or neutralize symptoms of severe diseases in a patient, they certainly have the power to disturb normal health when administered according to definite rules and regulations.

Are these provings still dependable guided for the selection of the curative medicine in the treatment of thee sick?

Gustavus A. Almfelt
Gustavus A. Almfelt, MD