Proving Symptoms of homeopathy medicine Cantharis, described by Richard Hughes in his book, A Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesis, published in 1895….


Cantharis vesicatoria, Geoffr. Spanish fly. Nat. Ord., Coleoptera.


I. a. HAHNEMANN proved tinct. of powdered flies, subjects and manner unknown. Results reported are – frequent micturition; urine distilling guttatim; pressive darting pain in neck of bladder; formication and pruritus in urethra after micturition; stinging pain there between acts of micturition; constrictive pain in limbs, almost paralytic; tearing pain in back; sense of stinging in eyes, as if salt had been put in; want of appetite; debility; prostration of strength; moroseness; colic; diarrhoea without colic; incarceration of flatus in hypochondria; sleeplessness; itching in skin; slight night sweat. ( Fragmenta de Viribus, 1805.)

1b. In first hours, feeling of weakness in genitals. After some hour, at night heat of whole body, especially anus and genitals. After 2 hours, incarceration of flatus under short ribs, very fetid flatus. After 3 hours drawing pain in spermatic cord when urinating. After 4 hours, at night painless itching, at one time in head, at another in foot. After 6 hours, smarting pain in palate, especially after eating; drawing pain in spermatic cord when urinating. After 10 hours, large stitches from orifice of urethra to anus, evening and night. After 12 hours, urethra painfully sensitive. After 18 hours, drawing pain in bones of hand and forearm. After 20 hours, anxiety in morning as if expecting something important. After 24 hours, urethra intensely irritated and contracted, hence the urine flows in a thin stream; burning at the orifices of the seminal vesicles in urethra during and after coitus. After 72 hours, drawing pain in penis, in back and in thighs, relieved by discharge of wind upwards or downwards. First days, across sacrum, on moving, pain as if from an injury. After 3 days, on going uphill he loses his breath, ebullition in chest, he becomes sick. Much perspiration when walking. After 4 days, bloody blenorrhoea. After 9 days, slimy and bloody stool.

Without note of time, – Some hour after rising, morning, very exhausted in mind, many thoughts come into his head, which he cannot get rid of; night confusion of head, with pulsation in forehead for many hour. Giddy and weak in head. On stooping immediately very red in face, the blood shoots forcibly into head; face hot when seated, not when walking. Headache, squeezing and tearing, only when moving; when stooping and turning head feeling as if something came up nape and pressed head forwards, when everything seems to come out at forehead. Cutting – shooting in head that wakes him up. He wakes at night with headache; an out – pressure in forehead, relieved by sitting up in bed. itching on forehead. A pimple on cheek near corner of mouth, with tensive pain when not touched, burning pain when touched. Smarting in eyes as from salt in them. Water runs out of his eyes in open air, must close them; on opening them the edges of the lids feel sore, as if raw. Dimness of vision, must strain eyes much in order to see well for near or distant objects. A pimple deeply seated in cheek, itching when touched. Pustules on chin, burning when touched. A pimple on side of neck, with burning pain. Constrictive sensation in larynx. Dislike to tobacco. Bad taste in morning. Nausea and loathing of food. Anorexia. No appetite evening and morning, nothing is relished. colic, single rapid pinches in right side of abdomen, more externally, when standing. Diarrhoea, without griping. Burning and twisting in abdomen, until he has been twice to stool, morning. Burning pain above navel when coughing, sneezing and blowing nose, with great heat in abdomen; corresponding to this pain are some yellow spots externally, which, touched, prick rather than burn. Frequent call to stool, with scanty evacuation of faeces. Four ordinary stools during day. Two liquid yellow stools during day, and cutting in abdomen after each stool, smarting pain in anus without tenesmus. Frequent call to stool. Thin stool with much irritation in rectum. In an hour seven stools of white thick mucus, like scrapings from the bowel, with streaks of blood. Itching above anus in coccyx. Frequent call to urinate. Much irritation to urinate The urine passed by drops. Must rise twice at night to urinate. At night a strong erection, during which there is contractive and sore pain throughout urethra. Orifice of urethra inflamed. Urethra swollen internally. Penis swollen. Swelling of fraenum preputii. The urine flows in a smaller and a divided stream and with difficulty, especially at 9 a. m. Every time he passes water he has a sensation in glans part of urethra as if the urine stuck there and could not come out, and pressive pain at that part, and yet the urine flows unhindered. After the urine has been passed some drops of watery blood follow. Sometimes shooting in urethra and burning in it when urinating. When he has a call to urinate it is preceded by a pressive shooting pain in neck of bladder, and only a few drops are passed during constant urging. The urine seems to him to be acrid. Formication and itching in urethra after urinating. Smarting pain in urethra whilst urinating. Cutting pain from back and abdomen through urethra. Yellow gonorrhoea, which stains the linen yellow. When the gonorrhoea discharges there is each time pressure in urethra. Nocturnal emission. Stiff erection of penis, night Sweat of genitals. When he passes water he is obliged at same time to go to stool, and yet nothing passes, but this urging to stool ceases when the urine is evacuated. Before the menses burning when urinating, and white sediment in urine. After menses for three days bloody mucus is passed from vagina. Hoarseness on chest. Sensation of dryness in throat for several days. A pimple on sternum that pains like a sore when touched. Cough morning on rising, with difficult expectoration. Cough with pain in abdomen. Betwixt shoulders downwards, on every movement, a rather persistent stitch, as if something had been dislocated. Tearing pain in back, especially morning. Pricking tickle in axilla. In bend of both elbows formicating itching. On natis large pimple, with burning pain when touched. In proximal phalanx of finger an itching swelling. Drawing pain in houghs. Shaking of knees when coming downstairs. Just above ankle-joint on tibia, as if flesh and skin were detached from bone, not observed on touching, for 14 days. Drawing, almost paralytic, pain in limbs. Feeling of dryness in joints of arms and legs, for 12 days. Itching in skin. A burning and kind of itching tearing here and there in skin. In morning very sleepy and faint. Slight night sweat. Heat, with thirst and general redness. When lying, sitting, and walking he chattered much unconnected stuff about his business and about people long dead. Weakness and sinking of powers. Sleeplessness. Peevish humour. Easily excited by insults. Cross only in morning on rising. Internal anxiety, loss of self – confidence, like hypochondriasis, afternoon. Has no rest, always seeks another place, at same time internal heat of head. Obstinate and contrary humour, afternoon. ( Archiv, xiii, 1, 157.)

2.Baudis [*To all these pathogeneses of C. contained in Hartlaub and Trink’s work the same description applies; they are stated to have been observed on healthy persons, and that is all we know about them.–EDS.*] – Restlessness; excited mood; vertigo; pains in head; burning of eyes; heat in face; pains in gums; tonsils somewhat inflamed; burning in throat while swallowing; much secretion of saliva; burning at orifice of stomach and in stomach itself; pains in intestines; hard stool, with protrusion of rectum; urging to stool; emission of white urine; great burning during micturition, and along urethra afterwards; urethral orifice is as if inflamed; continued priapism with somewhat painful feeling (for 3 hours); immediately after taking, short paroxysms of dry cough, excited by tickling in larynx, with quickened breathing and a sort of constriction of chest, also of trachea; burning in chest; little sleep; voluptuous dreams; heat in whole body; dryness of skin; weaker pulse. (HARTLAUB. TRINKS, Arzneimittellehre,)

3 Bethmann Everything affects him more deeply than usual, so that he is unable to resist much whining (2nd days); when wishing to reflect on anything his thoughts at once leave him; he gazes fixedly and in silence at some object (which, however, he scarcely notices) and has trouble in bringing himself to utter a few coherent words (2nd days); in morning great relaxation of mental power (2nd days); while walking in open air vertigo, with transient attacks of unconsciousness, recurring several times in 1/2 hours, and accompanied with sensation as of mist before eyes (1st day); confusion in forehead, as well as slight pressing and drawing there (12 hours); drawing pain in left side of head and in forehead; tearing in fore part of head, and (2nd days) in both temples; pressure in eyes; tearing in and behind right eye (1 hour); sickly appearance, sunken pale face; without feeling hungry wishes to eat now this, now that (1st day); increased thirst (6 hours); nausea (2nd days); dull pressure in stomach, felt most when it is empty (2nd days); cutting pain in stomach (1/2 hour); drawing pain; weak feeling (2nd days); costiveness, he must press much more than usual to obtain evacuation, and then it is insufficient (3rd days); watery diarrhoea; drawing and tearing in pubic region; in morning less urine than usual (2nd days); he cannot for whole day retain more than a spoonful of urine in bladder without urging to urinate; when urinating in morning had tensive feeling along urethra, as if urine were checked in its course (2nd days); tearing in thorax, especially in cardiac region (1/2 hour); stitches in right side of thorax; pressive pain in both sides, under ribs (2 hours); drawing pain in cardiac region; pressive pain in sacrum, for 2 days; tearing in scapula (1 hour) and axilla; drawing pain in left scapula (2 hours); tearing in left hand (2 d.), in left thumb (1 hour); great lassitude, especially in legs, as when low fever is impending; he remains in bed longer than usual in morning (2nd days); in morning profuse sweat on lower part of body. ( Ibid.).

Hartlaub. a. Confusion of head, and especially a sort of weight on vertex (1/2 hour); remarkable dryness in mouth and nose, also dryness of pharynx, with occasional stitching there (1st hour); eructations (1/2 hour); strong but not painful burning in stomach, with vinous taste in mouth (whole forenoon of first day); stool scanty, somewhat hard and difficult, with cutting pain in rectum (1st day); painless faecal diarrhoea several times in day; a sort of paralysis of neck of bladder, urine passes without slightest expulsive force, lasting some time, and so increasing that urine could scarcely be retained without effort (1st day); reddish urine; in morning in bed, while lying awake, discharge from relaxed penis, almost without sensation, of considerable quantity of normal semen, same thing recurring 24 hours afterwards (in a vigorous young man); a violent catarrh came on (2nd days) characterized by formation of much tenacious mucus in nose, without sneezing, hoarseness and painful detachment of same from chest, and (which he never has with a cold) nocturnal dry cutting stitches along trachea; tickling causing cough; soon after taking dose much tenacious phlegm from larynx and posterior nares, and therewith difficult and oppressed breathing, partly – as it seemed – from contraction of larynx and trachea, partly from dryness of nose; also violent palpitation for several minutes; fine but sharp drawing pain down a narrow line deep in right cervical muscles (2 hours), and fine stitches in skin of throat. ( Ibid.)

3 b. In 1/4 hour causeless anguish of mind, increasing by 1/2 hour to such a pitch that he feels as if he had committed a murder, it seems to come from stomach; in 2 hours it is associated with tremor of whole body, continuing while walking in open air; head heavy and confused; headache from forehead to temples; pressive headache over nose; dilated pupils with dim sight; ringing and humming in both ears; pain in left eyebrow as if pressed there by a blunt substance; flying, stitch – like pain over root of nose; quivering in gum of left upper eye – tooth; burning on tongue and palate, long lasting (1/4 hour); burning, scratching feeling in pharynx and sweetish disgusting taste on tongue and in whole buccal cavity; saliva of same taste fills mouth, and must be expelled, for 1/2 hour (1/4 hours); wishes to eructate, but cannot; increased thirst with much drinking, urine not increased in proportion, and slower than usual in following ingestion of fluids; nausea as though he would vomit; in region of stomach an indescribable sensation, she feels hungry without being really so; sense of fulness with pressure in stomach, feels as if eructation would relieve, but cannot accomplish it (3/4 hour); uncommon fulness in gastric region with anguish and restlessness (1 hour); cardialgia, lasting a long time; stitching, cutting pain through back and belly, quickly passing away (9 hours); belly much distended, and movement about as of flatus therein; renal region is affected with a continued dull sense of pain, late in evening borborygmus (1.1/4 hours); much flatus emitted; itching feeling in distal end of urethra, which at times is almost a cutting, without any voluptuous sensation; violent stitch – like pain in left chest, in cardiac region or heart itself (5 hours); much lassitude, as after strong bodily exertion; very anxious dreams whole night through; heated whole afternoon, as after walking fast on hot day, face therewith red and cutaneous exhalation increased. ( Ibid. ii, 219.)

Hering From emanations, – lachrymation and tension in upper lids; immediate urging to micturate; if any urine passes it is in small quantity and at intervals. Inflammation on border of right ala nasi, especially towards tip, running an irregular course, red and shining, with slight swelling and some pain (after several hours, not disappearing till 2 days); pain at 3 a. m. on upper part of nose, as if it had been pressed upon, then tension and erysipelatous inflammation and swelling from ridge of nose to both cheeks, especially right, colour disappearing under pressure and as quickly returning, cheek is hard to touch, – all this on 30th days, increasing on 31st, and going off on 32nd with slight desquamation (after several weeks, without notable cause a similar inflammation, especially on right upper lip, inside and tip of nose); after 6 hours small blister on gum, with red points, which after 15 hours disappears, leaving only a red spot, upper lip at same time much swollen but only slightly painful; on gum above left upper incisor appears a reed, somewhat painful, point, which gradually grows more painful, becoming at length a small round, inflamed, elevated spot, of yellow – reddish aspect, which is sore and painful on pressure, – therewith whole upper lip swollen; after some weeks a dental fistula, lasting several weeks, – red spot over tooth (now carious) has opening in centre, from which on pressure pus exudes; during hunger a sort of pain in pharynx (4th days); a sort of incomplete eructation almost like hiccup, which passes from pharynx to stomach (3rd days before dinner); slight pains over symphysis pubis, and downwards along ureters, which constantly become worse (5 hours); cutting and contractive pain from ureters down towards penis, sometimes from without inwards, somewhat relieved by pressure on glans; frequent discharge of scanty watery urine, at first without pain, but towards end with violent cutting, at the last it passes guttatim or in a weak and intermitting stream; when he goes to micturate, he can with great difficulty prevent some from escaping prematurely; urging to micturate far greater when standing, and especially when walking, than when sitting (5 hours); after 24 hours urine is again coloured darker, and pain on micturition is less; in urine passed during first hours, there floated, after standing, some thready mucus; for first time after 4 – 5 hours there were slight pains on micturition, and increasing urging thereto; pain on micturition is only at end of act, and is less the more urine is passed; slight stiffness in chest not affecting respiration (3 hours); if he bruises himself anywhere, spot burns for some time. ( Ibid., i.)

Nenning Depression, irritability (especially during pains), restlessness, vertigo; headaches of all kinds and in all parts of the head, among others – painful tearings in vertex, with sensation as if a lock of hair were being drawn upwards; intermittent painful twitching, now in right occiput, now on outer surface of left knee, long-lasting, always alternating, not disappearing on rubbing (2.1/2 hours); rising of heat into head, with perspiring hands which burn (1 hour after dinner); twitching of lids, biting and burning in eyes, yellow vision an hour long; a hot vapour issues frequently from the two ears alternately; frequent painful tearing in right mastoid process below ear, as with a knife, not disappearing on rubbing with frontal headache as from a weight there (1/2 hour); tearing about face, and heat in it; yellow tint of face and eyes (10th days); collapsed, hippocratic countenance; deathly pale face, dryness of lips and

throat, with and after pains (2nd days); a painless gumboil, yielding clotted blood only; slimy mouth, white tongue, blood in mouth; eructations, nausea, and tendency to vomiting; various pains in stomach and abdomen; acute stitch in right side of chest, then tearing between scapulae, then acute stitches in right shoulder, then same in right hypochondrium and scapula, returning to hypochondrium; hard stools, with tenesmus, followed by burning; the usual urinary symptoms, cold hands and feet with the strangury; burning in female pudenda; tension and contraction in front of chest, with dyspnoea and stitches all over chest, 11 a. m. – 8 p. m., relieved for time by lying down (stitches about chest frequently mentioned); abundance of pains, of no distinctive character, in back and limbs; in one prover, boring, tearing pains, with stitches, now in both knees, now in right only, extending downward to feet, upwards into hips, first right, then left unrelieved by camphor, but mitigated by warm, dry applications; whole body feels hot and sore; itching and papular eruptions; much lassitude; sleeplessness or disturbed dreaming; febrile chilliness or heat. ( Ibid. i.)

7. Ruckert. – Spasmodic stitches, drawing downward, from eyebrows to chin, and hot feeling in palate, as if he had eaten something burning (1st day); stitch on tip of tongue as if it had been bitten (do.); filthy, disgusting taste in mouth, several afternoons in succession; during slight but somewhat sudden turning of body, violent stitch during breathing on left side under arm, extending through whole body, just as if someone suddenly and violently transfixed him with a fine spear, arresting breathing for a moment; it occurred only once on other side, less violent, and not on breathing or motion, but in rest (2nd days); almost constant cutting pain in sacrum, especially while sitting (1st day); stitch in right shoulder – bones, through and through, pain and tension in little finger, for some day; pains in knees as if swollen, hindering motion, transient in left, in right lasting some day; whole body feels jointless and heavy, going up steps is very troublesome, legs feeling as if filled with lead (for 8 days); after any active or continued movement whole body is much heated, it also gets hot at other times, especially afternoons; restless beating of pulse in whole body, so that limbs tremble, for some day. (ibid.)

Schreter. [Symptoms omitted, as of dubious origin, and at the best a mere replica of those of Nenning.- EDS.] (Ibid. ii.)

9. a. April 19th, nine young men of different ages, heights, and constitutions, took at 8 a. m. 5 centigr (1 gr.) of powdered C. mixed with sweet almond power. After 2 hours the pulse was slower by a few beats. In 5 the urine was increased, one felt some nausea. At 10 a. m. they took another similar dose. At 12, noon, the pulse was slower in some and quickened in others, stationary in most. All had great urging to urinate, smarting, more or less severe, in urethra, with a feeling of constriction about prostate. They took a third similar dose. At 6 p. m. the pulses of all water quicker. The urine was abundant, the smarting in urethra had increased in those who had drunk little. One had slight colic and itching at anus with tenesmus. All complained of general weakness, and they perspired profusely. Next morning they stated that in the night their pulses were very low and they felt very weak. The smarting in urethra and almost ceased in the evening, but one of them had been much teased by it in the night and some drops of blood issued from his urethra. Another felt extreme prostration and intense cold during night, and could not warm himself by heaping on bed clothes. They all sweated profusely till next day, when they felt quite well.

9b. April 21st, seven young men took 1.1/2 gr. to 2 gr. of powdered C. between 6 and 8 a. m. At 10 a. m., pulse slightly slower, in two it was slightly quicker, but evidently softer than before. Another 1.1/2 gr. was given to each. At noon the pulse was still slower. A third dose of 1 gr. to some, of 1.1/2 to others, so that each had taken 4 gr. At 3 p. m., pulse of all considerably slower, and this lasted till next day. They all drank copiously and thus escaped the distress in the urinary apparatus which they had before experienced from a smaller dose. Two only complained a little. All had copious urinating and sweat. In the evening they all complained of extreme debility. This continued during night. Some had increased appetite, others diminished, and some had copious motion of bowels. (Giacomini, Traite phil. bet experim. de Mat. Medorrhinum et de Therap., translated in Encyclop. des Sc. Medorrhinum, 2nd div., Mat. Medorrhinum et. therap., p. 149.)

Richard Hughes
Dr. Richard Hughes (1836-1902) was born in London, England. He received the title of M.R.C.S. (Eng.), in 1857 and L.R.C.P. (Edin.) in 1860. The title of M.D. was conferred upon him by the American College a few years later.

Hughes was a great writer and a scholar. He actively cooperated with Dr. T.F. Allen to compile his 'Encyclopedia' and rendered immeasurable aid to Dr. Dudgeon in translating Hahnemann's 'Materia Medica Pura' into English. In 1889 he was appointed an Editor of the 'British Homoeopathic Journal' and continued in that capacity until his demise. In 1876, Dr. Hughes was appointed as the Permanent Secretary of the Organization of the International Congress of Homoeopathy Physicians in Philadelphia. He also presided over the International Congress in London.