Arnica montana

Proving Symptoms of homeopathy medicine Arnica Montana, described by Richard Hughes in his book, A Cyclopedia of Drug Pathogenesis, published in 1895….


Arnica montana, L. Leopard’s bane. Nat. Ord., Compositae.


1. HAHNEMANN, Fragmenta de Viribus medicamentorum positivis. Contains 117 symptoms from self and 33 from authors.

2. IBID., Mat. Medorrhinum Pura, vol. i of original and translation. Contains 591 symptoms from self and 9 others, and 47 from authors.

3 a. [ Throughout Jorg’s provings of the plant (a) will denote preparations of flowers, (b) of root. Hahnemann’s provings were mostly made with the tincture of the dry root.-EDS] ASSMANN, on Feb. 26th, 1823, at 5 p.m., drank 2 oz. of infusion (7 grs.). In spite of careful filtration it caused considerable scraping sensation in mouth and gullet. Constrictive pains in stomach then came on, lasting 1 hours, and then decreasing gradually in severity. When these had somewhat abated, head became confused and there was dull pressing headache under parietals and in neighbourhood of lachrymal fossa. This ceased during n. after increased perspiration. On following day there remained general lassitude, heaviness of head, and inability to work long or hard. March 3rd, 1823, 5 p.m., after 4 oz. of infusion (22 grs.) experienced all above symptoms but less markedly. A new effect of larger dose was that at 9:30 p.m. diarrheic evacuations took place with slight cutting pains in bowels; this was repeated thrice at short intervals next m.

3 b. On March 8th, 1823, at 6 p.m., took 6 drops of tincture mixed with 1/2 oz. water. Repeated belchings followed immediately; 15 m. later tympanitic distension of abdomen followed by severe cutting pains in belly which increased until 9 p.m. and only ceased during n. During evening had repeated foul- smelling eructations but without relief to other symptoms. Same effects followed doses of 12 drops on 10th and 24 drops on 14th. After 62 drops on 17th felt very soon pressure at stomach with feeling as if xiphoid process was being pressed in, stabbing under sternum, vertigo, pressing headache in parietal bones and in orbits, palpitation, and quickened pulse. These symptoms lasted all evening, disturbed sleep considerably, and lasted with varying severity till a.m. on 19th (? 18th); bowels meanwhile sluggish, hunger increased, although appetite was considerably diminished. Same results followed dose of 84 drops on 19th. (JORG’s Mater. zu ein. Kunst Heilmittellehre, 1825.)

4 a. ENGLER, on Feb. 17th at 5 p.m., took 4 oz. of infusion (7 grs.) and felt after 1 h. pulse somewhat slower and irregular; during following n. was restless and often disturbed by dreams. 24th. -After 4 oz. (15 grs.) noticed immediately burning scraping in oral cavity and gullet, repeated belchings, and during evening irregular pulse. Following n. was restless. Next m. on rising noticed peculiar painful feeling down back similar to that caused by continued stooping over hard work, but lasting only 1/2 h. Half h. after similar dose next day superficial pressive pain between shoulders set in and lasted nearly 3 h. Same pain was experienced next day after similar dose, but affecting more r. subscapular region and lasting nearly 4 h. March 5th, 6 p.m., took 4 oz. (30 grs.). Scraping in gullet more marked, and in 10 m. pressive pain between shoulder-blades, proceeding apparently from posterior wall of stomach, made itself felt, and disappeared only next m. During n. was restless and had lively dreams. (Ibid.)

4 b. Took from 6 to 36 drops of tinct. of root without result.

5 a. HEISTERBERGK (Feb. 17th, 5 p.m.) took 8 oz. infusion (15 grs.); after 10 m. noticed pain in region of stomach; this increased by degrees and lasted nearly 1 hours; judged by feeling it seemed as if walls of stomach were drawn spasmodically together. Pulse 75 to 80. On 24th after similar dose noticed nothing but considerable distension of abdomen, which came on a few m. after dose, and lasted nearly an h. On following day (25th) after similar dose same symptom was present and lasted nearly 1 h. When this had disappeared heaviness and confusion of head came on to moderate extent, lasting about 2 h. On 26th, 15 m. after taking 4 oz. (22 grs) noticed moderate sensation of cramp in stomach lasting about 8 m., 1 h. after dose confusion of head also came on but only lasted 1 h. (Ibid.)

5 b. Took from 6 to 65 drops of tinct. without any but local effects.

6 a. KNESCHKE on Feb. 22nd took 4 oz. of infusion (15 grs.), and whilst swallowing dose noticed peculiar scraping burning sensation in mouth and gullet followed in few m. by heavy pressure in region of stomach; former lasted 30 m., latter 1 h. On Mar. 3rd after dose made from 22 grs. experienced same effects. After quiet n. awoke next m. with severe stabbing pains in forehead and occiput, lasting all d. In addition, appetite was poor, bowels sluggish, and mental faculties impaired. Next day after good n. rest felt quite well. Repeated same dose on 7th and noticed immediately above-mentioned scraping in throat, soon accompanied by considerable pressure in region of stomach; former lasted only 1/2 h., latter continued nearly 2 h., and during last h. stabbing pain in forehead and region of temples came on and did not leave him all e.

6 b. June 29th, 8 a.m., took 1/2 oz. of infusion (5 grs.) (experiments with tinct. having proved as fruitless as Heisterbergk’s); after 15 m. fullness of stomach came on accompanied by slight pressure in upper and anterior part of stomach, lasting till 11; from 11 till 3 felt strong pressure in l. side of esophagus, pointing upwards, and accompanied at times with rather severe stabbing. At mid-day had no appetite. From 1 till 4 head became confused, had frequent inclination to sleep and felt disinclined for continuous exertion. Effects of drug seemed to have disappeared by e. June 30th, 8 a.m., repeated dose, shortly after taking which stomach felt full and remained in same condition until after 10; pressure in esophagus in same spot returned shortly before 12 and lasted about 2 h. Confusion of head coupled with inclination to sleep and disinclination for all active exertion lasted whole afternoon; these attacks passed off at 5 p.m. (Ibid.)

6 a. SEYFFERT, after dessertspoonful of infusion taken at 5, 8, and 11 a.m. and at 2, 5, 8, and 11 p.m., noticed each time frequent belching, scraping in throat, drawing in region of stomach, and lasting confusion of head; also frequent micturition, colour of urine being normal. Repetition of experiment produced same symptoms, and in addition an indescribable malaise and disinclination for work.

6 b. After doses of tinct. varying from 20 to 60 drops taken in an oz. of water suffered from scraping in the throat, repeated belchings, confusion of head and frequent evacuation of flatus during the evening (Ibid.)

6 a. STROFER on Feb. 17th at 4 p.m. took 4 oz. of infusion (7 grs.). Burning scraping in throat came on at once, accompanied 1/2 h. later by nausea; vomiting could, however, be avoided. On 21st repeated dose and besides above effects noticed increased secretion of saliva, troublesome unpleasant pains in region of stomach, frontal headache lasting about 2 h. and only vanishing finally after supper. March 3rd, 6 p.m., took 4 oz. of infusion (= 22 grs.), and experienced symptoms of former doses, but much more acutely, especially secretion of saliva, nausea terminating in vomiting, rush of blood to head, and frontal headache; from this as from previous doses found arterial pulse stronger than usual. (Ibid.)

6 b. STROFFER’s trial of tinct. of root was fruitless as that of others.

7 a. WINKLER on Feb. 25th, at 6 p.m., took 4 oz. inf. and immediately after swallowing noticed severe burning in throat, gradually descending through esophagus to stomach, lasting in mouth and gullet 3/4 h. In stomach this burning changed into pinching and pressing, and continued through small intestines as constrictive pain, accompanied with much movement. Abdomen became distended, almost tympanitic; this was relieved by walk in open air. Towards 8 p.m. a notable change took place in the abdominal symptoms; there remained at this time sensation of gnawing hunger, although all desire for food was wanting and W- had dined at 5 p.m. This hunger lasted whole evening and was still troublesome when W- fell asleep towards midnight. On awaking in m. was suffering from severe headache, which increased to such an extent that he nearly fell down from giddiness on going out into open air at 8 a.m. Headache ceased at 10 a.m., but nausea and lassitude lasted till mid-day. (Ibid.)

8 a. GUNTZ. June 24th, 1824, 8 a.m., after 1/2 oz. felt immediately in throat and esophagus (especially in anterior walls) a scraping lasting 5 m.; plentiful secretion of thin saliva, and nausea, but without going on to vomiting; 10 m. after dose pressure in stomach came on, increasing gradually to cramp- like pains and lasting nearly 2 h.; these pains diminished after a meal of bread and milk at 10 a.m. On 25th, 8 a.m., took 2 oz. (=20 grs.); scraping in throat and increased secretion of saliva followed, but to a smaller extent; 15 m. after dose cramp in stomach came on, and continued for 2 h.; after this frontal pain set in, lasting about an hours; during afternoon colicky pains in abdomen occurred from time to time but without any evacuation of bowels; during n. slept very little because of a violent attack of bleeding from the nose. 3 oz. of infusion (=30 grs.) 26th, and 3j on 27th, produced same effects.

8 b. July 2nd, 8 a.m., after taking tincture and smaller doses of infusion without result, took 3 oz. of infusion (=1/2 drachm) and felt soon after dose slight scraping along gullet. 3 p.m., perceived transient stitch in umbilical region which appeared to have its seat in small intestines, and lasted 1/4 h. 3rd, 8 a.m., took 4 oz. (=1 drachm); after 1/2 h. dull pain came on in frontal region and lasted until towards evening; at 6 next m. was attacked by pressing pain in r. hypochondriac region, which came and went, appearing to have its seat in liver or duodenum, and vanished at noon. (Ibid.)

9 a. JORG, after doses varying from 3 to 20 grs. obtained following results: Peculiar slight burning or scraping biting in throat extending through esophagus to stomach, somewhat like heartburn, and lasting 1/4 and 1/2 h. Soon after repeated belchings, at first with taste of drug. accumulation of saliva in mouth, and inclination to vomit without nausea, accompanied by feeling as if pharynx were swollen and prevented swallowing; these three symptoms vanish and reappear several times during next few h. About 1 h. after taking drug cramp-like constrictive pain begins in stomach, causing pain generally, but mostly in posterior wall of stomach, as if this were being pressed against spinal column and as if latter were made sore at same time above and below situation of stomach. Two or three h. after dose slight cutting pain in small intestines comes on, followed in 1/2 h. or 1 h. by distension and swelling of small intestines with frequent urging to stool, relieved at times by diarrheic evacuations, at other times by passage of small and touch faeces with much wind. Final effects are pressure in head, confusion of same, usually one-sided rheumatic headache, and vertigo lasting 1 or 3, 4 or even 5 h. Pain at stomach frequently changes, after 1, 2 or 3 h., into ravenous hunger, although appetite and digestion remain diminished.

9 b. June 30th, 8 a.m., after 3ij of infusion (=2 1/2 grs.) felt slight fullness in stomach and slight belching up of flatus, followed at 11 by slight dullness in head, which resolved itself at mid-day into general weariness, lassitude and somnolence; although these passed off after dinner, felt between 3 and 6 p.m. fatigued and disinclined for mental exertion. (July Ist, 10 a.m., 1/2 oz. of infusion (=5 grs.); felt immediately some scraping in throat, later on fullness on stomach and distension of abdomen, with frequent passage of flatus and urging to stool, although more constipated than usual; 3 to 6 p.m., again felt confusion of head and distaste to work. Next m. at 5 a.m. on sitting down to my work-table was surprised by severe pain in spinal column, such as would be felt by suddenly standing upright after long stooping: this cramp-like pain was not situated in the muscles of the back, but in the inner soft parts of spinal column, appearing at times as if posterior wall of stomach were pressed forcibly against anterior surface of spine. Two h. later pain was concentrated more in upper part of spinal column, between shoulder-blades; by mid-day all effects had passed off. On repeating dose 2 d. later same symptoms were produced, pain in spinal column lasting this time 2 h. and proceeding apparently from stomach. (Ibid.)

10 b. FRAU CH. took 1/2 oz. (=2 1/2 grs.); no scraping was produced, but moderate burning feeling in throat, less nausea and sinking, more pressure at stomach than from infusion of flowers. With this pressure at stomach was coupled at times feeling of emptiness and ravenous hunger, although there was complete loss of appetite and disinclination for all good. In afternoon she suffered from pressive headache, especially in forehead. Pressure at stomach was repeated from time to time, accompanied by unpleasant feeling of fullness, although stomach was empty, and also frequent acrid feeling in oral cavity lasting till 3rd day after taking drug. (Ibid.)

11 b. L-after similar dose noticed no symptoms in digestive tract, but from 11 a.m. till 10 p.m. felt confusion of head with frequently recurring inclination to sleep and distaste for active exertion. (Ibid.)

12. Eight members of the Vienna Society of Physicians proved A. in form of ext. of flowers, of which gr. j-xij were taken daily. Phenomena observed from its use were:

12 a. In digestive organs, flying pains in abdomen, epigastrium, and r. hypochondrium; eructation, disgust, yawning; dryness of mouth and throat; burning of tongue and palate; oppression of stomach; increased appetite; flatulence; firmer and less frequent evacuations.

12 b. In vascular system, stronger beat of heart; frequent blowing nose with traces of blood; slight epistaxis; swelling of hemorrhoidal vessels.

12 c. In nervous system, confusion and fullness of head; slight pressure; partial headache; vision of sparks; itching of skin and eyes; comfortable feeling or exhaustion; restless sleep, vivid agreeable dreams. (Wiener Zeitschr., Dec. 1844.)

13. SCHNELLER, one of the above, reports that he took doses increasing by 1 gr. daily for 11 d., in which therefore he took 78 grs. Up to dose of 6 grs. nothing particular was noticed save a bitter, rather disgusting taste, and increased flatus; sleep was also diminished and rather restless. Symptoms produced by doses of 7-10 grs. were, besides the foregoing, sensation of burning in tongue and soft palate, as if from pepper or from swallowing a hot liquid, which set in particular 3 h. after taking medicine and was confined to ant. third of tongue, on which nothing abnormal was visible; appetite unaffected. During doses of 11 and 12 grs. burning diminished and was only felt on point of tongue; in middle of lower lip several vesicles appeared containing a clear fluid and soon drying into scabs. In evening slight epistaxis. Nights restless, dreams very vivid. (Ibid, March, 1846.)

14. A. von SZONTAGH, et. 31, never ill since childhood, except ague 10 years ago, and whooping-cough 1 year ago. Always took the medicine about 11 a.m. either on sugar or mixed with water. Observed himself carefully for several weeks before proving.

14 a. From Oct. 20th took daily 3 drops of 3x. For some day pain in r. side of neck where the external carotid comes from under sterno-cleido-mastoideus muscle, as if a lymphatic gland were swollen there. The pain is distinctly felt on suddenly turning head to left, on applying strong pressure on the spot, and when the carotids beat more strongly. This pain never felt before the proving, and since then has frequently recurred during the last 10 or 11 months. -22nd and 23rd. On blowing nose in m. some drops of bright blood came from nose. -24th. Unusually sleepy in forenoon.

14 b. From 24th 1 drop daily of /0. -25th. Afternoon when sitting, slight cracking and feeling of sprain in right wrist on moving hand. -24th and 25th. Unusually early waking in m. with inability to go to sleep again. -26th. 3 drops 0/; nothing unusual. -28th. 5 drops /o. In afternoon some violent stitches in glans penis. -29th. Several times aching pain in first phalanges or 3 last fingers of l. hand. All afternoon confusion of head with slight singing in r. ear; evening, aching pain in l. eye extending to l. half of forehead, followed by eructation and inclination to vomit. -30th. Slight singing all day in r. ear, and similar but slighter headache or r. side without nausea. – 31st. 10 drops. Before taking it frequent empty eructation. 2nd Nov., 15 drops. Before taking it toothache in a sound l. lower molar. After taking it frequent eructation of air, smelling of arnica. Afternoon, slight squeezing pain in lower angle of l. scapula. E., in larynx feeling of obstruction, like swelling, inclining him to cough and hawk, which sometimes brings away some thick phlegm but without relief. -4th. On waking confusion of head, in the forenoon passing into pressive r. side headache. At 11 a.m. 20 drops 0/. After 1/2 h. urgent call to urinate and evacuation of a large quantity of watery urine. Headache lasts with intermissions all the afternoon. -5th. Afternoon, suddenly a violent tearing and burning in outer border of left foot for 1 m. -6th. 30 drops 0/. After 1 1/2 h. pressive squeezing pain in inner half of r. eyeball, going off gradually when walking in open air. The afternoon urine has a darker colour, acid reaction, and higher sp. gr. than usual. This and next day uncommonly frequent noises in ears, even when quite quiet. -8th. 40 drops 0/. Twitching pain in l. side of chest for some., recurring later. -9th. Forenoon, while walking for some m., each time he raises his l. foot, and also when moving l. ankle-joint, but not when moving knee, a creeping sensation in outer half of l. sole, as if a nerve were pinched. From forenoon till evening similar left -sided headache as on the 29th. The l. eye seemed more prominent and sensitive to pressure. -10h. On waking and rising pressive pain in inner half of right eyeball and corresponding part of forehead, going off towards noon. The creeping sensation in left sole came on under the same circumstances and at the same time as yesterday, lasted longer and occurred also in afternoon sometimes. At 11 a.m. 50 drops 0/. Towards evening in distal phalanx of right finger when pressed acute pain as after a bruise for more than 1 h. Slight singing in r. ear when at rest all d. The urine passed between 2 and 6 p.m. is dark yellow, very acid, of high sp. gr., becomes opalescent when boiled, but clear on adding nitr. ac. The unboiled urine left to stand forms next day a slight sediment which continually gets thicker, and after 62 hours when it is foetid shows many crystals of triple phosphates or urates under microscope. The urine passed before and after this is normal. -11th. Wakes early. In the n. and m. passes much odourless flatus. In m. in bed when lying on back tension in region of stomach. The sensitiveness to pressure of the phalanx of the r. ring finger recurs several times in the forenoon and afternoon, but slighter and shorter, and in evening turns into tiresome aching pain. -12th. 60 drops 0/. The urine, except in m., when it is normal, shows the same characters as on the 10th. -13th. In afternoon for 1 h. pressive squeezing pain limited to the inner half of r. eyeball. The urine passed in forenoon is sulphur yellow, turbid, very frothy, reaction neutral, and on standing a short time deposits a thick sediment. When boiled becomes still more turbid, but is cleared by nitr. ac., but becomes again turbid on the addition of ammonia. Left to stand it becomes fetid on the 3rd d. and deposits a large quantity of triple phosphates. -14. All d. striking decrease of quantity of urine without increase of its sp. gr. In the forenoon urine the phosphates, in the afternoon urine the urates, were somewhat increased. -15th. 75 drops 0/. E., suddenly a violent pressive tearing pain on ulnar side of distal phalanx of r. ring finger for some m. At n. when asleep breathes with open mouth (contrary to custom), whereby his mouth becomes quite dry. Urine in forenoon as on 10th, afterwards as on 13th, then normal. – 16th. Afternoon and evening, transient tension in l. buttock and knee. Towards e. till n. drawing and tearing in r. ring finger, especially in distal phalanx sometimes also in little finger and along ulnar border of forearm. In the forenoon and afternoon urine the phosphates are sometimes more, sometimes less, but always increased. E., urine normal. -17th. Urine as yesterday. – 18th. 100 drops 0/. When swallowing great burning in throat, which goes off after 1/2 h. Afternoon, unusually cheerful. Towards evening pressure and tension in spinal process of last cervical and first dorsal vertebra for a short time. Little sexual appetite. The urine passed from 3 to 6 p.m. very acid, turbid, deposits on standing a copious, brownish sediment; after standing longer there appear in it single lumps, which show under microscope many cells. After 3 d. it becomes foetid, but is still acid, the sediment more a kind of turbidity; when boiled the turbidity increases and settles at the bottom of the tube. On adding 2 drops nit. ac. it is completely dissolved with evolution of gas. -19th. Stool thinner and darker than usual. A small rapidly suppurating ache-pustule forms under the right angle of mouth with burning pain. The urine passed in m. and after breakfast normal; that passed in forenoon and afternoon turbid. – 20th. Afternoon, violent twitching pain from l. shoulder-joint to middle finger. -21st. In m. on waking, violent drawing tearing pain on ulnar side of back of r. hand for some m. This pain recurs noon, afternoon, and evening -23rd. In m. when walking, tearing pain in r. hip, ankle, and dorsum of foot. Later, when at rest, tearing jerking pain on ulnar side of back of l. hand. – 24th. All day, pressive headache in r. eye, forehead, and temple. -25th. In m. in bed, drawing pain in skin of back of l. little finger. Soon afterwards pressive pain in joints of r. ring and little fingers. Afternoon, right -sided. headache. The forenoon urine turbid when passed. -26th. Early in bed, drawing in skin of l. little finger. -24th, 25th, 26th. The above-described creeping in l. sole when walking. Next day, drawing pains in limited places of the hands and r. foot, soon going off. -30th. All day the well-known l. -sided headache; on Ist Dec. the same pain on right side. (N. Seitsch. f. hom. Klinik, vii, 9, 20.)

Richard Hughes
Dr. Richard Hughes (1836-1902) was born in London, England. He received the title of M.R.C.S. (Eng.), in 1857 and L.R.C.P. (Edin.) in 1860. The title of M.D. was conferred upon him by the American College a few years later.

Hughes was a great writer and a scholar. He actively cooperated with Dr. T.F. Allen to compile his 'Encyclopedia' and rendered immeasurable aid to Dr. Dudgeon in translating Hahnemann's 'Materia Medica Pura' into English. In 1889 he was appointed an Editor of the 'British Homoeopathic Journal' and continued in that capacity until his demise. In 1876, Dr. Hughes was appointed as the Permanent Secretary of the Organization of the International Congress of Homoeopathy Physicians in Philadelphia. He also presided over the International Congress in London.